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Native Pathways to Education
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Aleut RavenNiiĝuĝim Tunugan Ilakuchangis
Introduction to Atkan Aleut
Grammar and Lexicon

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haadal to get better (from illness); calm down; abate (wind)

Asx̂aaĝil angalikux̂ haadal ax̂takux̂. He's been sick all day but he's getting better.

haagal to be hungry; starve

haagax̂ hunger; starvation

haagax̂ asx̂aasal starve to death

haaganil: txin haaganil become hungry

haaganal: tanam haaganaa island without food

Angalim huzuu haagal angaliq. I've been hungry all day.

haaĝanil stop (a person)

txin haaĝanil stop; cease; remain

haaĝatal: txin haaĝatal stop (for awhile)

Masinas txidix haaĝanikus. The motor has stopped running.

Txin haaĝatal anĝiqadagumis taaman txin aygax̂tida. Stop and rest for awhile before you start walking again.


haakulalakan be clever; know how

Hlax̂ haakulalakax̂. The boy is very clever.

haanux̂ red salmon

Haanux̂ siknutikux̂. The red salmon is getting old.

haasxux̂ spear thrower; throwing stick (kept on the right side of the kayak)

Haasxux̂ ukux̂tax̂tax̂t? Have you ever seen a spear thrower?

haasix double-bladed paddle

Iqyam haasii akux̂. This is a baidarky's paddle.

hachiĝil wait; wait for

Hingahligan txin hachiĝil angaliq. I've been waiting for you right here.

hachix̂ back (human or animal)

hachik kukin haĝul carry on my back

Haching nanakux̂. My back is aching.

hachil stuck

hachis, hachitil close up; shut (a door, etc.)

Imyaĝim kayuxtaa quganam quchigan hachikux̂. His fishing line's sinker got stuck between rocks.

hadaa direction of; towards

hadakix direction of

hadangis plural form

hadaakul turn; turn toward; head for

hadaakutal turn; look toward

Kamgam ulaa qagaa hadan hadaakutakux̂. The church faces toward the east.

hadaatxan toward; into

hadgix̂ channel

Sunax̂ hadgix̂ axs qakuuĝakux̂. The ship went through the channel into the bay.

haĝlaxs, haĝlagil to have bad dreams; nightmares

Kukang amgaax haĝlaxs amaxsix̂. My grandmother had a nightmare last night.

hagyal to be clean

hagyaachxuzal to be very clean

hagyas, hagyatil make clean

hagyatal have cleaned

hagyayal clean (fish); clean up (place)

Ulang hagyayakuq. I am cleaning my house.


haxs grow; grow up (referring to people)

hagil to grow up

Hlax̂ hagdukux̂. The boy is maturing quickly.

haxsal open; become open; become visible

haxsil turn on; open

haxsix̂tal open (temporarily)

Qahmigix̂ haxsida. Open the door.

open the door

Taangam kraanaa haxsil aĝiilal ax̂takux̂. The faucet was left running.

haxsiisix̂ can opener

Haxsiisix̂ sux̂tal baankix̂ haxsilgazax̂. We use a can opener to open a can.

haĝaaĝux̂ narrow indentation at the coast (ten to sixty feet deep) with rocks surrounding

Haĝaaĝum qakuutxaa akux̂. It is a very deep inlet.

haĝadil be pale

Sagimaĝii haĝadikux̂. Her face is pale.

haĝis put upright

haĝitil lift

Saĝal qilakuq ting haĝitikux̂t. I was sleeping this morning when you woke me up.

haĝiyal make get up; save; make stand

Asxutix̂ haĝiyakux̂. He is trying to stand the post up.

haĝuĝiilux̂ pack sack

Muuyusii haĝuĝiilux̂ matal Atx̂ax̂ hnux̂tanax̂. Moses had a pack when he came to Atka.

haĝul pack; take on his back

Paavilaa haĝul chiĝanax̂ ngaan aqaanuusada. Pauline, come and take her across the river.

Braatang Isux̂ haĝul ixchiisanax̂. My brother packed a seal home.

haĝuyal to wrestle

Alax hlax txidix haĝuyal amĝinadix aadakus. Two boys are trying to beat each other by make believe fighting.

hax̂sal to pack; prepare; get ready

Sunam kugan ayugiiĝan hax̂sal hingamakux̂. She's packing for a trip on the tug.

kax̂satix̂ gun shell

Hax̂satix̂ kaluusal aaĝakung kalulagaa-ax̂takux̂. The shell I tried to use did not shoot.

hax̂s stand up; get up

hax̂til stand up; get up

hax̂tal be in a raised position; stay up; out of bed

hax̂tux̂sal get up (many)

Tayaĝux̂ hax̂tal hulakux̂. The man stayed awake all night.

haka up there (as in the air, on top of a hill)

hakan the one up there

hakang up there

hakaax from up there

hakaaĝal get up there; rise

hakaanul move upwards

hakaatxakux̂ it is way up there

hakangudaĝan upwards; (split) lengthwise

Hakahligan inkatiqang. I have hung it up there.

Igax̂tax̂ hakang igax̂takux̂. An airplane is flying up there.


hakax̂ feather

Hakax̂ chugum kugan akux̂ sulakan angaling. A feather was on the sand but I didn't pick it up.

haku up there (aslant)

hakun the one up there

hakuux from up there

hakuuĝal come up, ashore or toward the shore

hakuuĝaasal come up on; take ashore

hakuuĝas take or get up

hakuuĝatil take or get up

hakuutxakux̂ it is far up

hakungudaĝan upwards

Agux̂ hakuutxakux̂. The tide is far up. (flood tide)

halaaĝul to peel

Kartuufilas halaaĝul unada. Peel the potatoes and cook them.
peeling a potato

halal turn head; turn around

halaasal turn or lift

halazal turn the head several times

halax̂tal turn the head

halalil seasick

Isux̂ halal akux̂ kaluqang. When the seal turned its head I shot him.

halas take the cover off

Ingtiin halas aqadagumis taaman hax̂tida. Take your blanket off first before you get up.

halgix̂ root

Anqax̂tal halgix̂ ting as ilgada. Let's go out to look for root.

halim hadaa the windward

halmudax̂s go straight against the wind

Ayx̂aasix̂ halmudax̂s ayx̂akux̂. The boat is going against the wind.

halul to sew a skin

halux̂ seam

Anastaasiyax̂ igluqax̂ chaglil halul angalix̂. Anastasiyaa cut and sewed a skin.

haluĝikux̂ it is sewn

haluusal sew with

haluusix̂ needle

hama over there (invisible)

hamaaĝal go there; arrive there

hamaaĝaasal take over there

hamaaĝas: txin hamaaĝas get there

hamaanul go over there; out there

hamaanuchx̂il send there

hamaanuusal take with him (as expected or mentioned)

hamalix̂tal go over there

Hamalix̂tal uyada. Go over there and get it.

hamamal do so

hamamaasal do so

hamamaalal to be done so

hamamas do so there or then

hamangudax̂s go there

hamangudaĝan over there in that direction

hamĝax̂ sleeve

Hamĝax̂ chagliikalakaq. I cannot cut a sleeve.
sleeve pattern

hams heal; be healed

hamil heal; be healed

hamiyal heal; cure

hamayal heal; cure

hamayaasix̂ means for curing (plaster)

Chang hams ax̂takux̂. My hand has healed.

hanax̂ malgakux̂ the sea is breaking against the beach

hanĝis breakers

Hanĝix̂ hadangin haqakux̂. The surf is coming toward us.

hanix̂ lake

Hanix̂ angunakux̂. The lake is big.

hanim kamgituu American Goldeneye (waterfowl)

Hanim kamgituu sax̂ ax̂. The Goldeneye is a duck.

hanikal float

hanikax̂ fish float

hanikas float; lay still

hanikatil float; lay still

hanikatal anchor (boat)

hanikatil anchor (boat)

Ayx̂aasix̂ udam ilan hanikakux̂. The boat is floating out in the bay.

hangadaa higis to jump over

Fiidur hyaagam hangadaa higis akum txin manitanax̂. Fiidur was proud when he jumped over some lumber.

hangal to climb

hangakux̂ to climb

Hlam tutaqaĝiiyulax usxix̂ hangakux̂. A naughty boy climbed on top of a tree.

haqal come; set in; come about

haqaasal come with; bring; hand over; give; catch up with

Sunax̂ anaĝis haqaasakux̂. The ship is bringing things to the village.

haqaasachx̂il has brought himself up to the same level

haqachx̂il let come

haqax̂tal come

haqalal come one after another

haqanisal decoy; imitate to make come

haqaqalil start to come

haqas, haqatil come upon; find; bring about

haqatal know; have learned to know

haqatalakan don't know

haqataasal know

haqataqadal do not remember

haqayal be careful; cautious

haqayaasal be careful with

haqisngal sneeze

Aniqdux̂ haqisngakux̂. The baby is sneezing.
holding a sneeze

hasax̂ flat rock that goes out in the sea; skerry

Qawas hasam kugan hangax̂takus. The sea lions are on the skerry.

hasxil head into the wind

Hasxil ayx̂akux̂. He is heading into the wind (in a boat).

hasinal be many; much

Anĝaĝinas hasinakus. There are lots of people.

hatax̂s slip; startled

hataĝikux̂ slip; startled

hataĝnil startle; scare

hataĝniisal: igiim hataĝniisal be afraid of

Hlakuchax̂ hataĝikux̂. The little boy got startled.

hatax̂chx̂il to bounce

Mariiyax̂ hmiichix̂ hatax̂chx̂il mikaasakux. Mary is bouncing the ball.
bouncing a ball

hatix̂ ten

Ataqan ama sichiing hatix̂ ax̂. One and nine is ten.

hatidim ten times

Hatidim hatix̂ qanaang ax̂? What is ten times ten?

hatix̂ lip

Hatix̂ kixsxaa nanazax̂. It hurts when you bite your lip.
bite your lip

hawa there

hawan that one

haang, hawang there

hagumal do there or so

hawaaĝal arrive there

hagumaasal do so to

hawangudaĝan over there; that way

Tayaĝux̂ hawangudaĝan huyakux̂. The man went over that way.

hawaxs to tow

Iklax̂ tanam hadagaan hawagil udusakux̂. He is towing the log down the hill.

hayal to request; ask a favor

Ting hayakux̂. He/she asks me for a favor.

hazan next to it

Hazan atx̂ung adukux̂. The finger next to my middle finger is long.

hiiyukax̂ beak; bill (of bird)

Hilgim hiiyukaa adukux̂. The oyster catcher's bill is long.

hidangil turn up (the lamp); make the flame higher

Laampax̂ hidangida. Turn up the lamp.
turn up lamp

hidatix̂ spring; well; swamp

Hidatix̂ umdukux̂. The swamp is soggy.

higal frozen

higas: txin higas be freezing

higasxal freeze; be cold (person)

higayal freezing weather

higayas start to freeze

Higayax̂ malgakux̂. It is freezing out today.

higitil to jump

Vasilii higitil akux̂ ayunax̂. Willie jumped and fell.

higidgil be messed up; have flying hair

Imling higidgikux̂. My hair is sticking up.

hixs burn; put fire to

higikux̂ burn

hixsxal be burnt

hixtuqas kindling

hixtuqax̂sil make; chop kindling

Hlax̂ hixtuqas agukux̂. The boy is making kindling.

making kindling

hix̂sal understand; find out; remember

hix̂saasal find out; grasp; notice; recognize

hix̂sachx̂il make understand

hix̂sanil let find out

hix̂sanaaĝasal try to find out

Ayagax̂ anaa hix̂saasakux̂. She recognized the lady.

hiidux̂ draught; drafty

Ulax̂ hiidukux̂. The house is drafty.

hiigix̂ black oyster catcher

Hiigix̂ chugum kugan akux̂. The oyster catcher is on the sand.

hika up there

hikan that one up there

hikang up there

hikangudaĝan upward there

Qagmangis hikang igax̂takux̂. The geese are flying up there.

hikil disappear from sight

hikidgul cast; fling

hikis lose; miss; waste

hikitikux̂ lose; miss; waste

Hlax̂ hikikux̂. The boy disappeared from sight.

hiku up there, slantwise

hikun that one up there

hikung up there

hikuux from up there

hikungudaĝan upward, a slant, there

Tiĝlax̂ hikung akux̂. The eagle is up there.

hikuuĝas: txin hikuuĝas be filled; satisfied; pull to its place (boat)

Tayaĝus ayx̂aasix̂ sayul hikuuĝatikus. The men pulled the boat up to its place.

hil say; utter; call; summon; ask for; tell

hikux̂ says; utters

hiĝal be said; be told; be ordered

hiĝadax̂ it is told

hiĝazadax̂ it is told

hix̂tal say; tell; explain; promise; ask for; call for

hiilaĝal be called; be done continually

hiilax̂tal be called; it is told

hiilal be done; be done to

hiisal: aalax hiisal do a second time.

hiisax̂tal say; tell; order; call

Alqus hix̂tal hingamax̂t? What are you saying?

hilaax̂ confession

hilal to read

Ivaan tachim hilal aluĝilakax̂. John can't read and write yet.

Taatax̂ hilaqulix̂ alanaan hix̂takux̂. Father said he needs something to read.

father sitting

hilgil dig

Vikiintix̂ ulang chidaĝaa hilgil hiĝakux̂. Someone said Vincent is digging by my house.

himlax̂ white crested waves; rough sea

hilmax̂ white crested waves

Himlas txidix qayatikus. The swells are getting rough.

hinga right there; that

hingan that one

hiikus those

hiing there

hingaax from there

hiikul be so; for that reason

hiikuulal be done to so; receive such treatment

Hingan ayagax̂ ukux̂tada. Look at that woman.

hingalas nits; louse eggs

Hingalas kamgii kugan akux̂. He has nits in his hair.

hingul to push

Kachalam kugan akuq ting hingul ting hataĝninax̂. I was on the swing, then he pushed me and scared me.

hiqamaxsil stutter; stammer

Asxinux̂ hiqamaxsil tunux̂takux̂. The girl is stuttering.

his go out; come out; grow; make; put into state

hitil go out; come out

Ulam ilagaan hitil angaliq. I went out from the house today.

hidgul make (several)

Kamgadas txidix hidgukus. They became Christians.

hidulal be taken out

hidusal go out with; take out

Taangax̂ hidulakux̂. The water is being taken out.

take out water

Ulux̂ hidusakux̂. He takes out the meat.

hitaxs come forth; appear; show up

Quganax̂ sakang hitagikux̂. The rock appeared out there.

hitagnax̂ straight cloud with a sharp edge on top

Hitagnam sitxan slaĝuzax̂. Underneath the straight cloud it is stormy.

hital go out for awhile; make, put into temporarily; regard as; recognize as

Hital slaaĝax̂taangan ax̂siting. I am going out for awhile.

hitxalil start to go or come out

Uuguchiingix̂ chixtiim ilagaan hitxalikux̂. The fox is starting to come out of its den.

hitxidgul cast out

hitxis cast out; kick out of the house

hitxitil cast out

Sabaakax̂ ulam ilaan hitxisxakux̂. The dog was kicked out of the house.

hitxiyal try to cast out

hitxix̂ tail

sabaakam hitxii dog's tail

Sam hitxii adukux̂. The duck's tail is long.

hitx̂ax̂ breakers (out in the ocean)

Chax̂sxix̂ hitx̂azakux̂. There are breakers by the reef.

hitmil to pluck (duck)

Sax̂ hitmikuq. I am plucking a duck.

hitnisas plants

Hitnisas kuuĝakus. The plants are now growing.

hitzaaĝux̂ newly emerged

hitzal go out each time; one after the other; make several into

Taaĝan' gim hitzaaĝuu qaatunazax̂. A newly emerged cow parsnip is good to eat.

hiyal try to make; have become

Kamgadax̂ txin hiyakux̂. He/she is trying to become a Christian.

hizax barely; with difficulty; almost

Isux̂ hizax kalukux̂. He almost shot a seal.

hizal repeat

huĝdux̂ moss

Huĝdux̂ qayas kugan agach hitiiguzazax̂. Moss grows mostly on hills.

huchutal: txin huchutal behave well; behave nicely

huchutaasal comfort; soothe

Aniqdux̂ txin huchutakux̂. The child is behaving nicely

huchuuzal behave; be quiet

huchuuzalakan not behaving

Aniqdux̂ huchuuzalakan. The baby is not behaving.

hudax̂ dry fish

hudax̂sil to make dried fish

Hudax̂ qakalakax̂ mal chikalgakux̂. The dry fish is not dry and that's why the maggot are on it.

hugix̂ case; bag

huxsx̂il put shoes or boots on

Kitat huxsx̂ida. Put your shoes on.

hugin'gix̂ confined air

hugin'giĝiqadakux̂ it is running out of air

Laampax̂ hugin' giĝiqadakux̂. The lamp ran out of air.

huĝdaxs boils

huĝdagikux̂ to boil

Asux̂ plitam kugan huĝdagil ngus hiĝakux̂. I was told the pot on the stove is boiling.

huĝnaa, ulam huĝnaa the lee side of the house

huĝnaadal be lukewarm

huĝnaazal be warm

huĝnax̂tal have shelter from the wind

Ulax̂ huĝnaazakux̂. The house is warm.

huĝnas: txin huĝnas get warm

huĝnatal keep warm (brood)

huĝnayal warm

hulal bloom (flowers); dawn, beginning (of day, month); do in or until the morning or tomorrow

hulaalal dawn with (weather, etc.)

Slachxizax̂ hulaalal ax̂takux̂. It has dawned with good weather.

hulazaaĝux̂ the first light in the morning; bloom

Aahmaaĝix̂ hulazaaĝukux̂. The flower just bloomed.


hulmal melt (snow, ice, salt, etc.)

hulmil melt; cause to melt

Kdax̂ hulmakux̂. The ice is melting.

Saalax̂ hulmil alaadikas unalgaax̂t. Let's melt lard and fry some dough.

Kdax̂ hulmikux̂. He is melting the ice.

humgix lungs

Humging nanakux̂. My lungs hurt.

hums inflate

humikux̂ to inflate

humĝal to be swollen (door)

humĝatil swell; to become swollen

humsxal to be inflated

humtal to be in a swollen state; bulge

humsil blow; inflate

humsiisal blow (into something)

Baluunax̂ humikuq. I am inflating the balloon.

Baluunax̂ humsil txin asx̂anix̂ takux̂. He's trying very hard to blow up his balloon.

hunax̂ hole

Kriisax̂ hunax̂ agukux̂. The rat made a hole.

hunkil tip (something over)

hus, hutil tip over

Dramix̂ hunkikux̂. He tipped the drum over.

tipping drum

Ayx̂aasix̂ hutikux̂. The boat tipped over.

husal roll

husatil to roll

Quganax̂ husal utikux̂. The rock rolls down the hill.

Chadum taangkaa husatil udusakux̂. He is rolling a drum down the hill.

husix̂ jaw; lower jaw

Husix̂ matax̂t? Do you have a lower jaw?

husix̂ load

husix̂tal have as a load

husiilal be loaded in

husitul have a big load

Ayx̂aasix̂ husitukux̂. The boat has a large load.

hutax̂ thumb

Hutax̂ cham atx̂uu ax̂. A thumb is a kind of finger.

hutux̂ handle

Qahmigim hutuu qinganakux̂. The door handle is cold.

hutyuugas iron; flat iron

Hutyuugas txidix akinatikus. The flat irons are getting hot.

huudal shout; howl; whistle


Sunax̂ huudakux̂. The ship is blowing its whistle.

huutuqaax̂s rock; roll

Sunax̂ huutuqaax̂s ayx̂akux̂. The boat is rolling back and forth while running.

huyal go in some direction

huyaasal go with; bring

Ulam hadan huyakux̂. He/she is going to the house.

huyĝix̂ steam; smoke (from kettle or from the sea in a storm)

Alaĝux̂ huyuĝikux̂. The sea is steaming.

huyux̂ brother

huyuu her brother

Huyux̂ uhngix̂ matax̂. A brother has a sister.

Asxinum huyuu ayuxtakux̂. The girl's brother is out in a boat.


huzux̂ everybody; everything

huzus all

huzuu all of it; the whole

huzuĝil being altogether

huzuugizaa absolutely all of it

Xliibam huzuu alakuq. I need a whole loaf of bread.


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Last modified August 14, 2006