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Native Pathways to Education
Alaska Native Cultural Resources
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Yup'ik RavenMarshall Cultural Atlas

This collection of student work is from Frank Keim's classes. He has wanted to share these works for others to use as an example of Culturally-based curriculum and documentation. These documents have been OCR-scanned. These are available for educational use only.








Marshall is mainly made up of people from Takshak and Ohogamute. Six to seven families moved to Marshall from Takshak. They were Paul Shorty's Family, Willie Duny's Family, Alexander Agathuk's Family, Anna Coffee's Family and Morris Teganlakla's Family. Simeon Sergie's, John Moxie's, John Boots' and Alexander Isaac's families all came down from Ohogamute. Other families came to Marshall later. The rest of the people here are from the Lower 48, surrounding villages and up and down river.

Vernon Evan said that the first outboard motor was introduced to Marshall before he came up from Takshak. Irene remembers when her father had an Elto when she was a little girl. The first snow-machine was introduced around 1947. Don Hunter and Willie Fitka had snow-machines with long skis on them. They used a ranger to get the snow-machine out of the snow when it was stuck. Gene Tetnek had a 6-wheeler before the 3 and 4 wheelers were in Marshall. The Willow Creek mining camp had an Old Fortune where you used a crank to start it.

John Oney, Gene Tetnek, Gabriel Evan, Frank Owletuck and Willie Fitka all participated in World War II.

The Catholic Church was built in the 1930's or 1940's. They had a small church somewhere downtown. They don't remember when the Russian Orthodox Church was built, but they do remember the people holding services in Paul Shorty's house.

Vernon said he learned how to live the hard way. He didn't say he wanted to live back then. Irene said that she would like living now because she is getting old.

In 1973 Irene said she went from Sitka to Haines in a ferry boat. Vernon used to work on a steamboat in 1945-1946 when the steamwheelers were in operation.

Irene remembers in the early fifties the Takshak Chief used to take care of most of the business before there was a Traditional or City Council. Ludwig Papp and some other people were on the Traditional Council then.

Vernon went through the "starvation" period back in the old days. In fall and spring it was hard to get food from the country. Today we live off of the stores and what they provide for us. Eskimos back then only went to the stores for lard, sugar, flour and tea. On occasions, when they had enough money, they bought fruits and jams. We are what they call "modernized" said Vernon and don't depend on the wilderness for food as much as we did back then.

Vernon said he would rather have his children out in the country than in school. He said that they used to bring their grandchildren out to spring camp but they would always get homesick. They used to hunt all over the Marshall area. Now the prices for furs have dropped and the quality is poor.

Irene and Vernon said that they didn't do much in the old days for recreation. Eskimo dance was one of the main events back then. They said it is still very important for students to learn how to Eskimo dance. Eskimo dancing is just like square dancing. It's recreation for all of us. Both Eskimo dancing and square dancing are passed down from generation to generation.

Vernon finished the interview with a message. He emphasized, "It is very important for any student to learn how to survive in the wilderness. They won't know what to do if they don't experience life in the old ways. It's more important for the younger generation to hold on to the Yup'ik culture and traditions before they are a thing of the past. If the students today go to the dances more than they do the Eskimo dances, they are neglecting their culture and heritage. What would you say to your children in the future if they asked you how the Yup'ik people used to live? Think about it. It's your choice to lead the life that you are leading now. Whether you choose to be an Eskimo or something else, the thing that it will effect is your child's future."

Vernon And Irene Evan
Interviewed by Gabriel Duny
Marshall School



- Frank Keim


- Vernon and Irene Evan / Gabriel Duny



Land Ownership

- Willie Fitka Jr. / Flora Evan


- Mike Hull / Marlene Papp


- Ruth Fitka / Henry Manumik


- Leslie Hunter Sr. and Willie Fitka / LaVerne Manumik

Sewer and Water

- Richard Oney / Barbara Andrew

Solid Waste Management


- Aloe Coffee / Billy Waska


- Vernon Evan / Leslie Hunter Jr.


- Joe Peter / Tina Papp


- Leo Fitka Sr. / Palassa Sergie


Christmastime Tales
Stories real and imaginary about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 1996
Christmastime Tales II
Stories about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 1998
Christmastime Tales III
Stories about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 2000
Summer Time Tails 1992 Summertime Tails II 1993 Summertime Tails III
Summertime Tails IV Fall, 1995 Summertime Tails V Fall, 1996 Summertime Tails VI Fall, 1997
Summertime Tails VII Fall, 1999 Signs of the Times November 1996 Creative Stories From Creative Imaginations
Mustang Mind Manglers - Stories of the Far Out, the Frightening and the Fantastic 1993 Yupik Gourmet - A Book of Recipes  
M&M Monthly    
Happy Moose Hunting! September Edition 1997 Happy Easter! March/April 1998 Merry Christmas December Edition 1997
Happy Valentine’s Day! February Edition 1998 Happy Easter! March/April Edition 2000 Happy Thanksgiving Nov. Edition, 1997
Happy Halloween October 1997 Edition Edible and Useful Plants of Scammon Bay Edible Plants of Hooper Bay 1981
The Flowers of Scammon Bay Alaska Poems of Hooper Bay Scammon Bay (Upward Bound Students)
Family Trees and the Buzzy Lord It takes a Village - A guide for parents May 1997 People in Our Community
Buildings and Personalities of Marshall Marshall Village PROFILE Qigeckalleq Pellullermeng ‘A Glimpse of the Past’
Raven’s Stories Spring 1995 Bird Stories from Scammon Bay The Sea Around Us
Ellamyua - The Great Weather - Stories about the Weather Spring 1996 Moose Fire - Stories and Poems about Moose November, 1998 Bears Bees and Bald Eagles Winter 1992-1993
Fish Fire and Water - Stories about fish, global warming and the future November, 1997 Wolf Fire - Stories and Poems about Wolves Bear Fire - Stories and Poems about Bears Spring, 1992



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Last modified August 23, 2006