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Native Pathways to Education
Alaska Native Cultural Resources
Indigenous Knowledge Systems
Indigenous Education Worldwide
 

Southeast RavenLiving in a Fish Camp

ELEMENTARY CURRICULUM GUIDE
Grades K - 5

JUNEAU INDIAN STUDIES PROGRAM
City and Borough of Juneau School District

JUNEAU INDIAN STUDIES PROGRAM
10014 Crazy Horse Dr.
Juneau, Alaska 99801

Department of Education
Title IV-A Indian Education Act
Grant #N008500191

*NO portion to be reproduced without the written consent of the Juneau Indian Studies Program.

FOURTH GRADE 

Due to Alaska environmental resource diversity, some items can only be found in certain parts of Alaska. The value placed on such commodities led to the development of a complicated system of trade among the southeastern island and mainland Tlingits, and the Athabaskans of the interior of Alaska.

The fourth grade unit is designed to develop a greater understanding by students of Alaska's history, based on this concept. The learner focuses on the "respect" shown our natural resources, without which we would be unable to survive. Once a general understanding of respect toward nature is taught, the students learn more about the items that are traded by the Tlingits and Athabaskans.

The unit concludes by having a trade game which enhances the student understanding of the importance of trade...a time when cultures come together not only to trade, but to share a mutual respect and appreciation of our natural resources.

Social Studies Emphasis: Alaska History

TEACHER INFORMATION SUMMARY

Unit I: Tlingit Trading|

Purpose:
Trading is an important means for supplementing one's resources. This unit allows the student to study and identify items traded by the Tlingits and the Athabaskans.

The trade game enhances the student's understanding of trading and expands their knowledge of the importance of our natural resources.

Day 1 Overview of Alaska's Cultures

Values:
  • Respect for others
  • Respect for nature

Knowledge:

  • People of Alaska and their cultures
  • Natural resources in southeastern Alaska--how they are used and respected
  • Reading story of Tlingit Aanee and completing a worksheet

Skills:

  • Map skills
  • Listening skills
  • Reading aloud
  • Working independently

Day 2 Respect of Natural Resources

Values:
  • Respect of natural resources
  • Subsistence
  • Respect for others' beliefs

Knowledge:

  • The Tlingit ways of catching salmon and the respect shown toward the salmon

Skills:

  • Listening skills
  • Reading aloud
  • Following directions
  • Working independently

Day 3 Living by the Seasons

Values:
  • Respect of natural resources
  • Peace with nature

Knowledge:

  • How natural resources are used and the respect shown toward these resources
  • Food gathering times and procedures

Skills:

  • Reading
  • Working independently
  • Coloring graph
  • Identifying specific food gathering times

Day 4 Putting Natural Resources to Use

Values:
  • Respect for elders

Knowledge:

  • Gathering natural resources
  • Techniques used in making an article from natural resources
  • Demonstration on how to make an article from natural resources

Skills:

  • Listening skills
  • Observing
  • Participating in discussion

Day 5 Tlingit and Athabaskan Trade Items

Values:
  • Respect for others
  • Sharing

Knowledge:

  • Tlingit people are identified by whether they live on islands or on the mainland
  • Three main trading rivers
  • Tlingits traded with one another and Athabaskans to supplement what they have

Skills:

  • Labeling
  • Listening skills
  • Following directions
  • Participation

Day 6 Trade Items

Values:
  • Respect for others
  • Sharing

Knowledge:

  • Tlingits trade amongst themselves and with the Athabaskans
  • How trading was accomplished and the types of items traded

Skills:

  • Identify three Tlingit Islander trade items
  • Identify three Tlingit Mainlander trade items
  • Identify three Athabaskan trade items

Day 7 Trade Game Procedures

Knowledge:
  • How trade game will be played
  • How trade cards will be used
  • Describe the setting for our trade game

Skills:

  • Listening skills
  • Identify trade items

Day 8 Trade Cards

Knowledge:
  • Identify and draw trade items

Skills:

  • Listening skills
  • Following directions
  • Drawing
  • Coloring

Day 9 Trade Day

Values:
  • Cooperation
  • Sharing

Knowledge:

  • Tlingits traded with one another and with the Athabaskans to obtain a variety of goods

Skills:

  • Listening skills
  • Observing
  • Participating 
Fourth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Tlingit Trading
Lesson: Overview of Alaska's Cultures

Materials:

  • 30 large pieces (12"x18") of construction paper to make "Indian Studies" notebook
  • Colored pencils
  • Globe of the World
  • Large language map of Alaska*
  • 30 small desk maps of Alaska for each student to label the main Alaskan Native groups
  • 30 copies of Lingit Aanee written by Patricia Partnow

* Available from the Indian Studies Office

Objectives:

  • Students will be able to orally define "culture"
  • Students will be able to list three ways that their "Western" way of life is different from the Tlingit way of life years ago
  • Students will be able to name at least three different Alaskan native groups
  • Students will read Lingit Aanee to obtain information about the natural resources available in southeast Alaska
  • Students will list at least five natural resources available in southeast Alaska

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Begin the introduction the same as for the Third Graders. Repetition is fine, as the students have more knowledge after one year and they can add on more information onto the subject of "culture".

Show the globe of the world to the students. Explain to them that if they lived here 200 years ago, it would have been difficult to travel without modern ways of transportation. There are oceans, mountains, deserts, etc. that are added obstacles in traveling many years ago. Therefore, people stayed in their own area and few explored beyond. People rarely saw others outside of their own "culture" and as a result there was little outside contact or influence. People's cultures, or way of life remained intact.

Explain to the students that people all around the world have many ways that are similar to one another as well as many ways that are different. Ask the students how we are all alike and how we are different. As they mention something, write it on the chalkboard. List about eight items on the board. Some of those items that students often cover include language, housing, education, clothing, transportation, entertainment, celebrations, government, foods, and physical appearance.

Tell the students that culture is a way of life. It includes everything that they listed on the chalkboard. Place the word "culture" on the chalkboard. Tell the students that they may be learning new words. The words that you would like them to remember will be in the box on the chalkboard.

Tack the Alaska language map up where the students can see it. Ask them why they are fortunate to live in Alaska. You may get responses such as, it snows, the beautiful scenery, etc. Expound on that. "Yes, we are fortunate to live in an area where there are unique cultures that still exist. There are many different Alaskan Native groups here in our state and their way of life is different from each other."

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

Pass out Alaska desk maps that have not been labeled with the major Alaskan Native groups. Have the students refer to their small Alaskan map as the teacher points out where the major Alaskan Native groups live on the large map. Say each group out loud and have the students repeat it after you for reinforcement. As you go over each Alaskan Native group, have the students write that group on their small Alaska map. Ask the students why there are many different names for Alaskan Natives. They always respond that each group has their own unique "culture".

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

Tell the students that they will make an Indian Studies notebook. This is where they will place all Indian Studies handout sheets.

Pass out large construction paper, fold in half and have the students write their name on the upper right hand corner. Have them title it Indian Studies and let them know that their Alaska map should go into this notebook. (Students tend to lose their papers, so this saves a lot of time!)

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Tell the students that we will be learning about the Tlingit culture, since we live in southeast Alaska. An important part of

any culture are the natural resources available in their area. Write natural resources on the board and ask for it's definition. We are going to read a book on the natural resources available in southeast Alaska.

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

Pass out Lingit Aanee to all of the students. (This book is an excellent visual resource for the students to see what natural resources are available in southeast Alaska). Have each student read one page out loud.

After the students read Lingit Aanee, discuss. Ask the students if they can name a natural resource that the Tlingits needed to survive 200 years ago. How would they have used these natural resources? (A good example to use would be that blueberries were used for food or dyes). Call on three students for more examples.

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

After the students understand that the natural resources were important to the Tlingits, give them the handout sheet entitled, Tlingit Natural Resources.

Have the students list some natural resources that were needed for the Tlingits to survive 200 years ago. Also, include how these natural resources were used.

Activity (Closure)

Ask the students why the natural resources were so important to the Tlingits.

Activity (Independent Practice)

If the students finish their Tlingit Natural Resource handout sheet, early, they can draw those natural resources.

Alaska map
Click to see bigger image

Alaska map
Click to see bigger image

   

LINGIT AANEE

WRITTEN BY
PATRICIA H. PARTNOW

ILLUSTRATED BY
JEANETTE BAILEY

 

The Alaska Bilingual Education Center
Of the Alaska Native Education Board
4510 International Airport Road
Anchorage, Alaska

 Lingit Aanee

Imagine standing on a beach at the shore.

Lingit Aanee

You look out toward the ocean...

  Lingit Aanee

But instead of the ocean, you see islands-islands right in front of you, and islands off in the distance.

  Lingit Aanee

The islands have tall mountains on them-mountains with steep sides that come right down to the shore!

 Lingit Aanee

The mountains are covered with tall, tall trees: spruce, hemlock , and cedar.

Lingit Aanee

You turn around and look at the beach you are standing on. The beach is rocky and narrow. Seaweed clings to the rocks up to the tide line. And right at the edge of the beach, you see more tall, tall trees.

Lingit Aanee

The ground slopes up and your eyes follow the shape of the ground-up, up, to the top of another big mountain right in front of you.

Lingit Aanee

You decide to walk into the forest. You go to the edge of the rocky beach and look between the trees. 

 Lingit Aanee

It is dark in there, because the trees are so tall and thick that they block out all the sunlight.

Lingit Aanee

You go in anyway. The ground feels spongy underfoot. You look down and see moss-soft, wet moss. And mushrooms. And tall ferns. Blueberry bushes as big as you are. And a big prickly plant called devil's club that will sting you if you touch it.

Lingit Aanee

It's hard to walk through the forest, because there are so many plants, bushes, and fallen trees in the way. You feel a cool wet breeze on your face and breathe the wet sweet air. You begin to hear a light pattering noise. You look up-it's raining a light, drizzly rain.

Lingit Aanee

It becomes more difficult to walk as the ground slopes up more and more steeply toward the top of the mountain. You decide to walk back down to the beach.

 Lingit Aanee

It's raining now, and the clouds are low. You can't see the tops of the mountains on the islands anymore.

Lingit Aanee

For the first time you notice the sound of running water. You look around you--and see that there are lots of streams and waterfalls tumbling down the mountains, out of the forests onto the beaches, and into the sea.

Lingit Aanee

Suddenly you become aware of noises--animal noises! The islands, forest, ocean, and beaches are full of animals! You look around in surprise and you see...

Lingit Aanee

Eagles and ravens and sea gulls and ducks...Mountain goats and black bears and brown bears and deer...

Lingit Aanee

Porcupines and weasels and squirrels and foxes...

Lingit Aanee

Sea otters and sea lions and whales and porpoises...

Lingit Aanee

Salmon and halibut and dolly varden and herring... 

Lingit Aanee

And lots more!!

And you wonder...what kind of people live in this place?

This is a pre-publication copy being distributed for purposes of field testing and correction only, not to be reproduced without the permission of the Alaska Bilingual Education Center.

 

Fourth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Tlingit Trading
Lesson: Respect of Natural Resources

Materials:

  • 30 copies of The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon, written by Patricia Partnow*
  • 30 copies of the handout sheet entitled: The Tlingit
  • Way: How to Treat Salmon*
  • Lingit Aanee poster by Patricia Partnow*
  • Example of a woosaani or harpoon*

* Available from the Indian Studies Office

Objectives:

  • Students will read The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon to obtain information about how the Tlingits show respect towards salmon
  • Students will understand that the Tlingits believed that everything has a spirit through reading The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon
  • Students will learn the duties that the Tlingit women, men and children have at fish camp
  • Students will be able to list at least two different ways that Tlingits caught salmon

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Explain to the students that yesterday we talked about the natural resources available to the Tlingits. The Tlingits were fortunate to have so many resources available to them.

Discuss respect for these natural resources. The Tlingits believed that everything had a spirit. They showed respect towards all the resources from animals, trees and even roots from the trees. They knew that they could not survive without all these resources.

Tell the students that they will be reading a booklet about how the Tlingits respected salmon.

Activity (Instruction)

Give directions. Tell the students to read the entire booklet, entitled The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon. Afterwards, they are to complete the worksheet that goes along with the booklet.

Activity (Guided Practice)

Pass out the booklet to each student. Monitor the students by walking around the room to see how they are doing. Have the students raise their hands if they need your help.

Activity (Closure)

After all of the students have completed their questionnaire, discuss. Go over each question and expound on it. Ask the students how the Tlingits showed respect towards salmon. Ask the students where the Tlingits went to during the summer. What did they do at this place?

Ask the students how the Tlingit men caught the salmon. It helps to show the poster of Lingit Aanee. which shows a variety of fishing methods mentioned in The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon. Also, show an example of a harpoon or woosaani (in Tlingit). Ask the students what materials the woosaani is made out of. How does this harpoon catch salmon?

After discussing the questionnaire, reinforce to students that it was the Tlingit way to show respect towards their natural resources. Ask the students why this was so.

Activity (Independent Practice)

Students who finish their questionnaire early can illustrate one Tlingit method of catching salmon.

 

THE TLINGIT WAY: HOW TO TREAT SALMON

Written By:
Patricia H. Partnow

Illustrated By:
Jeanette Bailey
March 1975

 

A Production of the
Alaska Bilingual Education Center
of the
Alaska Native Education Board
4510 International Airport Road
Anchorage, Alaska

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

Most Alaskans fish for salmon now and then, and most people like to eat it. But in the old days, the Tlingits used to fish for salmon all summer long and into the fall, and they caught enough to last them through the winter. They ate salmon for almost every meal.

Since salmon were so important to the Tlingits, the people wanted to make sure they would catch enough in the summer and fall to last them through the year. They felt that it was not enough to have good aim with a salmon harpoon, or to be able to build a salmon trap just the right size and strength to hold salmon. They thought those skills were important, but they felt that skills alone would not catch salmon. They believed that salmon allowed themselves to be caught only if they wanted to be caught--so the really good fisherman was the person who knew how to treat fish well and keep good will between human beings and salmon. Most important, a good fisherman understood that salmon must not be insulted or angered--for if the salmon were insulted, they would never return to the streams where they were born, and the people would starve.

salmon

This story tells some of the special ways the Tlingits treated salmon, and some of the ways they knew to avoid insulting the salmon. These were things that all children had to learn when they were growing up. The children learned by watching and listening to their parents and uncles and aunts and grandparents, and they remembered everything that these relatives told them. They had to--it was a matter of life and death! Then, when the children grew up, they passed on all these rules, and many more, to their own children.

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

 

This is the way it used to be:

 

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

In the summer, all the clans headed for fish camp, each clan going to the fishing grounds and stream that it owned. A clan often owned more than one good salmon stream, so the members of the clan would split up. Some men took their families to one stream, others took their families to another stream.

Once a group of clansmen and their families arrived at fish camp and had set up tents and arranged their belongings, they helped each other build salmon traps and weirs and put up nets across the openings of streams. Then they all fished together, but each man kept the fish he caught for his own family. And each woman cleaned and dried the fish her husband caught for their family.

That is the way it used to be: the family needed the man to catch the fish; and it needed the woman to prepare the fish.

Catching Salmon

In the old days, only the men caught salmon. Women were not allowed to come close to the water when salmon were running. This was one way people showed respect for salmon.

The men knew lots of different ways to catch salmon. Here are some of them:

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

If the men were fishing in a clear stream or river, they might build a barricade of sticks (called a weir) across the stream to keep the salmon from swimming upstream. They stood on the banks of the river and threw a long spear called a harpoon to catch the salmon.

The harpoon head was made of bone. It rested in a notch at the end of the wooded spear handle. A rope made of spruce roots or kelp was tied to the harpoon head at one end and to the handle at the other.

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

 

When a salmon was harpooned, the fisherman held on

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

to the rope. The harpoon head came loose from the handle, and stuck in the salmon. The fisherman let the salmon swim around on the end of the rope, and when it became tired, the man pulled the fish to shore.

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

If the men were fishing in a silty glacial stream and couldn't see anything in the water, they used a long gaff hook to catch the salmon.

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

The handle of the gaff hook was made of a straight stick, and the hook was made of sharpened bone.

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

Sometimes, the men used large dipnets for catching salmon.

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

In the streams with heavy salmon runs, the fishermen used large fish traps for catching the salmon. They would catch more salmon this way than any other.

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

The traps were made of pieces of wood which were lashed together by spruce roots. The men collected the wood, and the women gathered the spruce roots. 

 The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

The men built the trap. Then they placed it across the stream with the opening facing downstream.

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

As the salmon swam upstream to their spawning grounds, they were guided to the opening of the trap. They swam into it, but could not find their way out. 

 The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

When the trap was full, it was hauled out of the water and the salmon were taken to the women to clean.

After a man caught a salmon, he sang to it, explaining why he had killed it. The song might say something like this:

"Why did I kill that fish?
I need it to eat.
My family at home is hungry- -
I didn't kill it for nothing.
Forgive me." 

Preparing Salmon

The women liked to be together when they were cleaning and smoking salmon. They stayed close to the campsite, and talked and laughed as they worked. They had to work quickly to clean the fish before they spoiled. The children helped them--some helped to clean fish, others helped by babysitting for their younger brothers and sisters.

Each woman had a large cutting board made of cedar or spruce wood for cleaning the fish. She put this on the ground, and put the fish she was going to clean on the board with its head pointed upstream. The fish's head always had to point upstream, for at the head of the stream it would spawn, and its soul would be born again in the body of another fish. The woman herself sat on the ground facing downstream, with her side, not her face, towards the water.

To clean the fish, the woman would cut off its head and make a cut down the fish's belly to clean the guts out. Then she cut the fish almost in two along the backbone and pulled the backbone and ribs out. She cut slits in a special pattern in the meat. Each woman cut her own special design in the fish for her family. That way, she could tell which fish were hers after they were dried along with everyone else's salmon in the big smokehouse.

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

She saved the fish eggs to dry or smoke.

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

The women were very careful to take care of the bones, head and guts of the salmon. In some parts of Lingit Aanee, the women burned all of the left-over parts of the salmon after they cleaned it. In other areas, they threw them into the stream. This was one of the things which the salmon demanded of human beings. Otherwise, the fish would not be reborn and the people would starve.

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

There was usually one big smokehouse at summer fish camp. Sometimes people lived in the smokehouse, and other times they lived in tents or small huts and only used the smokehouse for drying fish.

smokehouse

The door of the smokehouse faced the river or stream. Sticks to hold the drying salmon hung across the house, in the same direction as the river. When a woman put her salmon on these sticks, she made sure that the front end of the salmon was heading upstream.

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon 

The fire for smoking the fish was made of alder wood and cotton wood. It was not allowed to get too hot, because then the fish would cook and the meat would fall off the skins into the fire. Every night the fire was smothered, and every morning it was started again.

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

The women had to pay close attention to the salmon they were smoking. The fish had to be moved around so they would not spoil, and had to be checked to see if they were drying evenly all the way through.

After about a week the smoking would be finished, and the women would take their fish down from the sticks.

They stacked the dried fish together, packed them all between two boards, and put them in a wooden box. The fish were stored in the box until later in the year when the family was ready to eat them.

And that's the way it used to be!

This is a pre-publication copy being distributed for purposes of field testing and correction only, not to be reproduced without the permission of the Alaska Bilingual Education Center. 3-75-500.

 

Name:_________________________________

The Tlingit Way: How to Treat Salmon

Please answer the following questions:

1. According to the Tlingit people, the really good fisherman was the person who knew how to:___________________________________________________________________

2. Why did a good Tlingit fisherman feel that salmon should not be angered or insulted? ___________________________________________________________

3. How did the Tlingit children learn since they did not have books to read?______________________________________________________________________

4. Where did the Tlingit people go during the summer months?______________________________________________________________________

5. What did the men do at the place in the summer?_____________________________________________________________________ 

What did the women do at the place in the summer?______________________________________________________________________

6. Did the women help the men catch the salmon? Why or why not?______________________________________________________________________

7. The men knew many different ways to catch salmon. Name and describe these different ways of catching salmon.______________________________________________________________________

8. What was the harpoon head made out of?______________________________________________________________________

9. Which method of fishing caught the most fish for the Tlingit

people? ________________________________________________________

10. Why did the Tlingit men sing to the salmon after it was caught? ____________________________________________________

11. How did the Tlingit children help their parents at the fish camp?______________________________________________________________________

12. The women placed the salmon on a cutting board to clean. The head of the salmon pointed upstream as it was being cleaned. Why?______________________________________________________________________

13. Each woman cut her own special design in the fish for her family. Why did she do this?______________________________________________________________________

14. The fire for smoking the fish was made of:

a.___________________________________

b.___________________________________

15. What would happen to the salmon if the fire for smoking the fish was too hot?______________________________________________________________________

16. What type of containers were the fish stored in?______________________________________________________________________

Juneau Indian Studies

 

Fourth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Tlingit Trading
Lesson: Living by the Seasons

Materials:

  • 30 copies of the handout sheet entitled, Tlingit Economic Year
  • 30 copies of the Tlingit Economic Year questionnaire
  • A copy of page 115 from the book, Cedar, by Hilary Stewart
  • An item made from cedar bark (i.e., cedar bark basket, hat, etc.)*
  • Cedar bark*

* Available from the Indian Studies Office

Objectives:

  • Students will learn when Tlingits gathered their natural resources after coloring the pie graph provided in Indian Studies curriculum
  • Students will explore how certain natural resources were gathered (i.e., cedar bark)
  • Students will listen to the instructor talk about the importance of respect towards their natural resources (i.e., cedar bark)

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Yesterday we discussed how and why the Tlingits showed respect toward salmon. Today we will learn the time of the year that Tlingits gathered their natural resources. Talk about the seasons and what was gathered and utilized during those periods.

We will also be studying about one of the natural resources cedar bark. We'll find out how the cedar bark was gathered and how they showed their respect toward the tree for the use of bark.

Activity (Instruction)

Provide each student with the pie graph entitled, Tlingit Economic Year and the questionnaire that goes along with it. Students are to color the calendar according to the directions. After coloring the pie graph, they are to answer the questionnaire that goes along with it.

Activity (Guided Practice)

Students will color the Tlingit Economic Year pie graph and answer the questionnaire. Monitor the activity by walking around the room, having students raise their hand if they need assistance.

Activity (Independent Practice)

If students finish their questionnaire early, have them draw a picture to go along with their written description of what natural resources they would have gathered during the month of May.

Activity (Closure)

After students complete their questionnaire, discuss as a group and have students give their answers. After the students finish coloring the pie graph, they seem to have a better concept of when different resources were gathered.

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

Remind the students that the Tlingits respected all of their natural resources. They never wasted anything. They believed that if they treated these resources with respect, then there would always be a supply of resources to continue their survival. They were in harmony with nature.

Use cedar bark as an example of how the Tlingits gathered their resources. Show the students how the bark was gathered. Refer to page 115 from the book, Cedar, by Hilary Stewart. Show samples of what the Tlingits made out of cedar bark (i.e., cedar bark hat, clothing, baskets, etc.)

Activity (Closure)

Reinforce to the students that the Tlingits could not have survived without the help of their natural resources. They knew this and respected their environment. They showed their respect in a variety of ways. For instance, if they were using the bark from the tree, they would thank the tree.

Do you remember from yesterday, how the Tlingits showed their respect toward salmon? How is this similar to showing respect toward the tree?

The Tlingit Economic Year
Click to see bigger image

 

Name:_________________________

 

The Tlingit Economic Year

  • Color the bark gathering BROWN
  • Color the deep sea fishing BLUE
  • Color the berry picking GREEN
  • Color the seaweed gathering YELLOW
  • Color the salmon fishing RED
  • Color the hunting ORANGE

Directions: Refer to the Tlingit Economic Year graph to answer the following questions:

1. The Tlingits gathered bark during the month of?___________________________________

2. What is today's date?___________________________________

What would the Tlingits be going during this month?___________________________________

3. Which month did the Tlingits spend a lot of their time fishing for salmon?___________________________________

4. Which months look like the busiest months for the Tlingit people?___________________________________

5. If you were a Tlingit in the year 1885, describe in your own words what life would have been like for you during the month of May.___________________________________

Juneau Indian Studies

 

Collecting Cedar Bark
Click to see bigger image

 

Fourth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Tlingit Trading
Lesson: Putting Natural Resources to Use

Materials:

  • A Tlingit resource person to demonstrate how to make an article from their natural resources. (i.e., Chilkat Blanket Weaver, Spruce Root and Cedar Bark Basket Maker, etc.)
  • Materials necessary for the resource person (i.e., a table for demonstration, slide projector, etc.)

Objectives:

  • Students will observe a Tlingit resource person demonstrate how they make an article from the natural resources
  • Students will recognize the amount of work it takes to gather and prepare the natural resources to make an article
  • Students will recognize the amount of work it takes to make an article
  • Students will observe how the resource person shows their respect toward natural resources and/or their working materials

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Introduce the Tlingit resource person. Inform the students that we are fortunate to have this person share their knowledge. This person will be your teacher for the next 40 minutes.

Tell the students that after our guest demonstrates we will be discussing how the natural resources were gathered and prepared before making an item. How does this person show respect toward the natural resource?

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

Students will observe a demonstration from a Tlingit resource person. During this demonstration, students will recognize the vast amount of work it takes to gather and prepare the supplies needed and then finally produce a finished product.

Activity (Closure)

Thank toe native resource person for sharing with the class. Have the students ask questions. Discuss the demonstration.

 

Fourth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Tlingit Trading
Lesson: Tlingit/Athabaskan Trade Items

Materials:

  • 30 copies of student desk map showing southeast Alaska trade routes
  • Large map of Alaska's Native People*
  • Colored pencils for each student
  • Examples of Tlingit and Athabaskan trade items (i.e., artifacts, photographs, etc.)*
  • For references on Tlingit trading, refer to Under Mount St. Elias, by Frederica deLaguna, The Social Economy of the Tlingit Indians, by Oberg and the teacher guide, Tlingit Trade Game, by Patricia Partnow* 

* Available from the Indian Studies Office

Objectives:

  • Students will be able to differentiate between the Tlingit villages located on islands and the Tlingit villages located on the mainland by labeling a map of southeast Alaska
  • Students will identify the major rivers used for trading by labeling the southeast Alaska map
  • Students will participate in a discussion on trading

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Explain to the students that the Tlingits had villages located in two different areas. Some Tlingits lived on the islands. (Define island for those who may not know what it is). Some Tlingit villages are located on the mainland near large rivers.

Activity (Instruction)

On the large Alaska map, point out the difference between the Tlingit islands and mainland. Tell the students that they will be given their own map of southeast Alaska. On this map, the students will see the names for several Tlingit villages.

List the Tlingit villages (Island and Mainland) onto the chalkboard. For example:

Mainland Villages

Island Villages

Chilkat
Hoonah
Yakutat
Henya
Tongass
Angoon
Auke
Sitka
Chilkoot
Kake
Stikine
Kuiu

Also, list on the chalkboard, a few of the major Tlingit rivers.

Examples are: the Stikine River, the Taku River and the Alsek. Add the Copper River to the list. It is an Athabaskan River.

Give each student their own map of southeast Alaska. Ask them to circle the mainland villages with a brown pencil, the island villages with a green pencil and the rivers with a blue pencil.

Activity (Guided Practice)

Students will identify the Tlingit villages located on the mainland and islands by circling these villages on the southeast Alaska map. They will also locate the major rivers listed above.

Monitor this activity by walking around the room. If the students need further assistance, have them raise their hand.

Once the students have finished circling the Tlingit villages and rivers, go over to the large Alaska map and point out where all the villages and rivers are. If they have made a mistake, have them correct it.

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

When the students understand that the Tlingit villages are located on the islands and the mainland, introduce the concept of trading. Why do people trade? Why do you think the Tlingits traded? Who did they trade with?

Activity (Closure)

Review briefly the material that was covered for the day. What is the difference between the villages located on the island as opposed to those located on the mainland? What are the names of some of the Tlingit villages? Are they located on islands or on the mainland? What are the names of a few of the major Tlingit rivers?

Tlingit Trading
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Fourth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Tlingit Trading
Lesson: Trade Items

Materials:

  • Examples of Tlingit and Athabaskan trade items (i.e., artifacts, photographs, etc.)
  • Variety of natural resources that the trade items were made from. Examples: cedar bark, spruce roots, moose-hide, mountain goat wool, etc.)
  • 30 copies of Harvest Time at the Beach handout sheet*
  • 30 copies of the handout sheets entitled: Plant Foods, Beach Foods, Berries and Animal Foods*
  • Cedar, written by Hilary Stewart. Refer to pages 115 and 172
  • Kahtahah, written by Frances Lackey Paul. Refer to pages 12 and 13

 * Available from the Juneau Indian Studies Program

Objectives:

  • Students will be able to identify three items that were traded by the Tlingits from the islands
  • Students will be able to identify three items that were traded by the Tlingits from the mainland
  • Students will be able to identify three items that the Athabaskans traded with the Tlingits
  • Students will observe the natural resources needed to make the trade items
  • Students will be able to identify the items that these three groups of people would like in return

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Review yesterday's lesson on trading.. Do the students understand the concept of trading? Reinforce that the Tlingits traded to obtain a variety of goods. We will go over these goods that the Tlingit people traded between themselves and the Athabaskans.

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

The Tlingits that lived on the islands were surrounded by water. These people had plenty of seafood, shells and they had cedar trees, green stone, etc. Bring samples or handouts of the items that the island Tlingits had.

These Tlingits that lived on the islands traded the above goods with Tlingits from the mainland. In exchange, the mainland Tlingits would have items like eulachon oil, cranberries in oil, mountain goat horn spoon, Chilkat blankets, etc. Bring samples of these goods to show the students.

The mainland Tlingits traded also with the Athabaskans. The Tlingits wanted different Athabaskan items such as moosehides, copper, birchwood bows, caribou hides and wolf moss. Explain why these items were desired by the Tlingits.

In return, the Athabaskans wanted Tlingit items such as iron, cedar bark baskets, shell ornaments, cranberries in oil and eulachon oil.

It is easier for the students to remember which group of people owns what if you have three display tables. Each table should represent the goods from each group of people (i.e., the island Tlingit, mainland Tlingit and Athabaskan). Write on the board or posterboard the three groups of people and underneath list the items that these people had. Below this list, add the goods that each of these groups desired. (Refer to the lesson on Trade Procedures for a listing of these items).

Activity (Closure)

Review the extensive material covered for the day. Ask the students to list all three groups of people. Below that list, briefly copy the information from the board. Save this list for future reference.

Harvest Time at the Beach
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Plant Foods
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Beach Foods
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Berries
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Animal Foods
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Collecting Cedar Bark
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Collecting and Preparing Cedar Roots
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Spring Eulachon Camp Spring Eulachon Camp

Reprinted from the book, Kahtahah, by Frances Lackey Paul, (pages 12-13).

One day as they were watching a big eagle swooping to the water for a fish, Kahtahah told her foster mother that she liked the summer camp best of all the places that they lived. "All winter it is dark and cold and rainy," she said. "Then spring comes and we go up the Stikine to the eulachon camp, but it is still cold. In summer camp there are no grizzly bears to be afraid of and there are so many different things to do, so summer camp is much the nicest."

The eulachon camp was where Snook's family always stopped for two or three weeks in the spring on the way up the Stikine to hunt grizzly bears and to gather spruce roots. There they fished for eulachon, a sort of needlefish smaller than a herring, commonly called hooligan. These fish came into the big rivers to spawn by the millions, sometimes before the ice was gone. Then the men had to set their nets of woven spruce roots through holes in the ice, but the nets were often carried away if the eulachon run came after the breakup of the ice and the big blocks of ice rushed down the river, sweeping everything before them. The men who went out in canoes to dip up the fish in their baglike nets were in danger, too. Only the spring before, one of the slaves had drowned when a cake of ice upset his canoe.

Eulachon

The Indians knew when a fish run was coming because great flocks of sea gulls followed the eulachon up the river, flying about, screaming, diving, swimming and fighting as they fed on the eulachon all day long. The women strung hundreds of the little fish on bark ropes, hanging them in the sun and the wind to dry, sometimes with a slow smoking fire under them.

The fish were so rich in oil that it dripped out while drying. But the most important part of eulachon fishing was trying out the oil, which was done in several steps. First, the fish were heaped in large piles until they were partially spoiled, which separated the oil more quickly. The fish were then put in canoes or big boxes, and water and hot rocks added. The water was kept boiling with additional rocks until all the oil from the fish had risen to the top. When cool, the thick grease was skimmed off and stored in wooden boxes.

Eulachon

When the eulachon run was large all the Indians filled many boxes with grease. The Tlingits liked to use the oil themselves for dipping dried halibut and salmon and as a sauce for boiled salmon eggs, but they also traded it to Indians who did not own a spring camp on the Stikine. Good eulachon fishing grounds made rich Indians because others traveled long distances just to buy the oil.

 

Fourth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Tlingit Trading
Lesson: Trade Game Procedures

Materials:

  • Resources on Tlingit Trading:
    • Under Mount St. Elias by Frederica deLaguna*
    • The Social Economy of the Tlingit Indians by Oberg* 
    • The Tlingit Trade Game, a teachers guide, by Partnow*
  • Trade cards representing items from the island Tlingits, mainland Tlingits and the Athabaskans

* Available from the Indian Studies Office

Objectives:

  • Students will observe the rules to the Tlingit trade game in which they will participate in during the next few days
  • The class will practice playing the trade game with the instructor

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Begin with a review from yesterday's lesson. Ask the students what items were traded by the Tlingits from the islands, the Tlingits from the mainland and the Athabaskans. What items did these three groups of people want in return?

Explain to the students that certain trade routes were owned by different clans. The Tlingits that lived on the mainland near the large rivers had the advantage for trading with the Tlingits from the islands and the Athabaskans. (Refer to the resources listed under Materials). The mainland Tlingits acted as a middleman in trading between the island Tlingits and the Athabaskans. If the Athabaskans wanted a product from the island Tlingits, they would have to go through the mainland Tlingits. If the island Tlingits wanted an Athabaskan product, they, too, would have to go through the middleman, the mainland Tlingits.

When the Tlingits traded, they had a trade partner. (Refer to Under Mount St. Elias by deLaguna)

Explain to the students that they will be involved in a Tlingit Trade Game in a few days. The instructor will be going over the rules to this trade game.

Ideally there should be three classes involved in the game. One class (Fourth Graders) would represent the mainland Tlingits.

Another class (also Fourth Graders) would represent the island Tlingits and the Athabaskans would be represented by yet another class (Fifth Graders).

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

Explain to the students that before the trade game begins, the instructor will decorate a classroom. It should look like the mainland Tlingits have traveled a distance and have set up a camp. This will be where the mainlanders will trade with the islanders and Athabaskans.

The mainlanders will stay in this trading area during the entire game. Remember, the mainlanders are the "middlemen" between the islanders and the Athabaskans.

Then, the Athabaskans will pretend like they've hiked a great distance to trade with the mainlanders. The Athabaskans will be greeted by the mainlanders. To determine your partner, the mainlanders will be in a single line. The first Athabaskan in line will be the partner of the first mainlander, and so on. (This will prevent confusion). The students must remember who their partner is, because they will be trading together twice during this trading game.

The mainlander will take their Athabaskan trade partner back to their tent or around the fake fire pit to begin trading.

This is a description of how the trading game will take place...

Each group (the mainland Tlingits, island Tlingits and Athabaskans) will have trade cards representing their trade goods. Put on the chalkboard or posterboard, a list of what each group of people will have to trade at the beginning of the game and a list of items that they will want by the end of the trade game.

Tlingit Islanders

At the beginning of the game, the islanders WILL TRADE the following items:

  • 2 Cedar Bark Baskets*
  • 2 Irons*
  • 2 Shell Ornaments*
  • 1 Seal Oil

Tlingit Islanders

At the end of the game, the islanders WILL WANT the follow-items:

  • 1 Moosehide (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Copper (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Birchwood Bow (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Mountain Goat Horn Spoon (Mainland Tlingit)
  • 1 Chilkat Blanket (Mainland Tlingit)

Tlingit Mainlanders

At the beginning of the game, the mainlanders WILL TRADE the following items:

  • 1 Eulachon Oil
  • 1 Cranberries in Oil
  • 1 Mountain Goat Horn Spoon
  • 1 Chilkat Blanket

Tlingit Mainlanders

At the end of the game, the mainlanders WILL WANT the following items:

  • 1 Moosehide (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Copper (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Birchwood Bow (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Caribou Hide (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Wolf Moss (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Iron (Tlingit Islanders)
  • 1 Shell Ornament (Tlingit (Islanders)
  • 1 Cedar Bark Basket (Tlingit Islanders)
  • 1 Seal Oil (Tlingit Islanders)

Athabaskans

At the beginning of the game, the Athabaskans WILL TRADE the following items:

  • 2 Moosehides*
  • 2 Coppers*
  • 2 Birchwood Bows*
  • 1 Caribou Hide
  • 1 Wolf Moss

Athabaskans

At the end of the game, the Athabaskans WILL WANT the following items:

  • 1 Iron (Tlingit Islanders)
  • 1 Cedar Bark Basket (Tlingit Islanders)
  • 1 Shell Ornament (Tlingit Islanders)
  • 1 Cranberries in Oil (Mainland Tlingit)
  • 1 Eulachon Oil (Mainland Tlingit)

* Indicate two for one trade items for the Mainland Tlingit

Remember, the Mainland Tlingits are the middlemen. Mainlanders, because of their intermediate position, extract a commission from each trade, thereby becoming quite rich in items.

If either the Athabaskans or the islanders want to trade an item that both other groups of people would like (for example, the Athabaskans want to trade copper and both the mainlanders and the islanders want copper), then the mainlanders will only give them one item for two.

The Two-for-One items are:

Tlingit Islanders

Athabaskans

Cedar Bark Baskets*

Birchwood Bows*

Shell Ornaments*

Copper*

Iron*

Moosehide*

If the Athabaskans want to trade copper, the mainlanders will give the Athabaskans one item (for example, cranberries in oil) for 2 coppers. Then the mainlanders are able to trade one of the coppers to the islanders.

(*) The asterisk indicates two-for-one trade items for the mainlanders.

The object of the game is to trade the abundant items for the needed or wanted items from the other groups of people.

Once the Athabaskans have traded with the mainlanders for about 5 minutes, the Athabaskans will leave the trading room. After the Athabaskans have left the room, the mainlanders will stand in a line waiting for the islanders to arrive. The islanders will pretend that they have canoed a great distance to trade. Establish trade partners. (This will be done the same way that trade partners were established for the Athabaskans).

The mainlanders will then take their islander trade partner back to their tent or around the tent to trade. Trading will take place for 5 minutes. After 5 minutes of trading, the islanders will leave the room.

The Athabaskans will come back to the trading area and go back to their same trading partner. They will trade with the mainlanders for 5 minutes. (This will be the second time that the mainlanders and Athabaskans have traded). Why is this? The Athabaskans come back to trade for the second time so that they can get the islander items that the mainlanders have now. After the Athabaskans have traded for 5 minutes, they will leave the room.

The islanders will come back for their second time of trading with the mainlanders. They will trade for 5 minutes with the same mainlander trade partner in hope of getting some Athabaskan trade items.

Activity (Closure)

After all students have traded, get the three groups together to discuss the trade game. What did they learn? Sometimes, the students find it unfair that the mainlanders come out with more of a variety of items.

Tell the students that the islanders and the Athabaskans were also the middlemen with other groups surrounding them.

The students also need to know that we do not know the authentic exchange rate of trade items. This trade game is not accurate with the rates of exchange, but the students do get a feel of what trading is all about. They learn what natural resources were available to trade and the items that they would like in return.

Teacher Note:

The cards following this lesson must be duplicated and cut out before handing out to students.

cards
cards
cards
cards

 

Fourth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Tlingit Trading
Lesson: Trade Cards

Materials:

  • White paper to draw trade items
  • Colored pencils, markers or crayons
  • Resource books on Alaska animals, Alaska native clothing, pictures of cedar trees, bark, Tlingit sea life, etc.*
  • Samples of trade items. (Shells, cedar bark, mountain goat horn spoons, spruce root baskets, iron, photographs of a Chilkat blanket, etc.)*
  • Examples of trade cards (Tlingit)

* Available from the Indian Studies Office

Objectives:

  • Students will draw trade cards to use for the trade game

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Tell the students that we will be having our trade game tomorrow. We will need to make our own trade cards to play the game.

Activity (Instruction)

Place resource books, samples of trade items, white paper for drawing and colored pencils on a table.

Show the students an example of how they can make their own trade cards. If they are representing the island Tlingits, they will need to make trade cards of the following: 1 Seal Oil card, 2 Cedar Bark Basket cards, 2 Iron cards and 2 Shell Ornament cards. If they are representing the mainland Tlingits, they will need to make trade cards of the following: 1 Eulachon Oil card, 1 Cranberries in Oil card, 1 Mountain Goat Horn Spoon card, and 1 Chilkat Blanket card.

The students can refer to the table of resources if they need a picture of what their trade items look like. Also, some students will need paper and colored pencils.

Activity (Guided Practice)

Monitor the activity by walking around the classroom. If students are having problems getting started, refer them to the resource table. For those students that need additional help, have them raise their hand.

Activity (Independent Practice)

Students that may finish early can help the instructor assist with those students that many need extra help. They can also draw other trade items to keep for themselves.

Activity (Closure)

Have the students write their name and teacher's name on the back of their trade cards. Remind them to write the group that they are representing, and the name of the trade item onto their trade cards. If they are representing an island Tlingit, they will need a star on the upper right hand corner for the following items: cedar bark baskets, iron and shell ornaments.

cards
cards

 

Fourth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Tlingit Trading
Lesson: Trade Day

Materials:

  • 3 fish camp tents (refer to trading area handout)
  • Fake rocks, firepit and fish roasting over firepit*
  • Fake blueberry bushes, skunk cabbage, devil's club, etc.*
  • Furs, bentwood boxes, mountain goat spoons, etc., to place in or around tents*
  • Button blankets for students representing mainland Tlingits
  • Shells, cedar bark, etc., for the students representing the island Tlingits*
  • Hides, bows and arrows, etc., for the students representing the Athabaskans*
  • 30 copies of "want list" - a list of goods (or cards) that students should have by the end of the trade game

* Available from the Indian Studies Office

Objectives:

  • Students will participate in a Tlingit trade game
  • Students will trade cards representing trade items with their trade partner
  • Students will observe that the Tlingits traded with each other and with the Athabaskans to obtain a variety of goods
  • Students will observe that the mainland Tlingits were the "middlemen" between the island Tlingits and the Athabaskans

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

The instructor or instructors will need to speak to each class representing the different groups (i.e., island Tlingit, mainland Tlingit and Athabaskan). Each class will need to be briefed on the rules to the trade game.

One of the classrooms should be decorated to look like the outdoors. This should be done in advance before the trade game begins.

The mainland Tlingits will stay in the decorated room throughout the trade game. The island Tlingits and Athabaskans will be coming in and out of this room twice to trade with the mainlanders.

Refer to the lesson in Trade Game Procedures for instructions on how the Trade Game should be played.

It is necessary to let the students know when their 5 minutes is up for trading, because the Athabaskans will leave the trading area to allow for the islanders to trade. The students will need a cue that won't distract them so they will know when it is time to leave the room. One suggestion is to leave the lights out (using natural lighting) during the trading. When 5 minutes is up, quickly flick the lights on as a cue to leave.

Provide the mainlanders with button blankets to wear while trading. (These may be obtained through the Indian Studies Program.) Provide the islanders with something to carry to the trade game to represent that they are from the island. Students should be provided a "want list" which tells them what items they should have by the end of the game.

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

Student will be involved in a trade game. Refer to the rules of the trade game in the lesson entitled Trade Game Procedures.

The instructor will monitor the activity by walking around the room seeing if everyone is involved in their trading cards. The object of the game is to receive a variety of goods (or cards). Make sure that the students refer to their "want list". Many times they will forget some of the items they may want in return due to the excitement of the game.

Activity (Closure)

After the trade game is complete, gather all the students together into one room. Ask the students how they felt about the trade game. Do they now have an understanding of how important it was to trade?

Some students feel frustrated when they cannot directly trade with the other group (i.e., Athabaskans and islanders never saw each other). They also felt it was unfair that the mainland Tlingits seemed to get the best variety of goods.

Expound on this!

 

camp
Click to see bigger image

 

MAINLAND TLINGIT 'WANT LIST"

The Mainland Tlingits will have the following cards BEFORE the trade game begins:

1 Eulachon Oil
1 Cranberries in Oil
1 Mountain Goat Horn Spoon
1 Chilkat Blanket

Remember that when you see an islander or Athabascan card with a star (*), you must take 2 of those cards and in exchange give only one card.

By the END of the trade game, the mainland Tlingits should have

1 Moosehide(from the Athabaskans)
1 Copper(from the Athabaskans)
1 Birchwood Bow(from the Athabaskans)
1 Caribou Hide(from the Athabaskans)
1 Wolf Hide(from the Athabaskans)
1 Iron(from the island Tlingits)
1 Shell Ornament(from the island Tlingits)
1 Cedar Bark Basket(from the island Tlingits)
1 Seal Oil(from the island Tlingits)

 

ISLAND TLINGIT "WANT LIST"

The Island Tlingits will have the following cards BEFORE the trade game begins:

2 Cedar Bark Baskets*
2 Irons*
2 Shell Ornaments*

Remember that when the (*) is on a card it means that you must trade 2 cards in exchange for 1 mainlander card.

By the END of the trade game, the island Tlingits should have the following items:

 

1 Mountain Goat Horn Spoon(from the mainland Tlingits)
1 Chilkat Blanket(from the mainland Tlingits)
1 Birchwood Bow(from the Athabaskans)
1 Copper(from the Athabaskans)
1 Moosehide(from the Athabaskans)

 

ATHABASKAN "WANT LIST"

The Athabaskans will have the following cards BEFORE the trade game begins:

2 Moosehides*
2 Coppers*
2 Birchwood Bows*
1 Caribou Hide
1 Wolf Moss

Remember that when the (*) is on a card it means that you must trade 2 cards in exchange for 1 mainlander card.

By the END of the game, the Athabaskans should have the following items:

1 Cedar Bark Basket(from the island Tlingits)
1 Shell Ornament(from the island Tlingits)
1 Iron(from the island Tlingits)
cranberries in Oil(from the mainland Tlingits)
1 Eulachon Oil(from the mainland Tlingits)
 

ACTIVITY IDEAS FOR

MATHEMATICS

SCIENCE

ART

READING

LANGUAGE ARTS

OTHER

Fourth Grade Resources
Available from the Indian Studies Program

Books for Students:

Lingit Aanee, by Patricia Partnow, Anchorage School District
The Tlingit Way: How To Treat Salmon, by Patricia Partnow, Anchorage School District
Kahtahah, by Frances Lackey Paul

Books for the Teacher:

The Social Economy of the Tlingit Indians, by Oberg
Tlingit Trade Game, Teacher's Guide, by Patricia Partnow, Anchorage School District
Cedar, by Hilary Stewart
Living by the Seasons, Teacher's Guide, by the Juneau Indian Studies Program
Alaska's Native People, by Alaska Geographic

Resources Available at Local Libraries:

Under Mount St. Elias, by Frederica de Laguna

Other Resources Available from the Indian Studies Program:

Fish Camp tents
Fake rocks
Fire pit
Fish roasting
Blueberry bush
Skunk cabbage
Devil's club
Furs
Bentwood boxes
Mountain Goat spoons
Button Blankets
Shells
Cedar Bark 

Diskettes for use with Apple II or Apple III

Alaska Natives the First People, Parts Three and Four, by Larry and Martha Stevens

Study Prints:

Language map of Alaska
Lingit Aanee poster
Tlingit Sea Life

Artifacts:

Mountain Goat Horn spoon
Bentwood Box
Eulachon Oil
Chilkat Blanket
Cedar Bark Basket
Shell Ornament
Copper
Birchwood
Moosehide
Cedar Bark
Spruce roots

Resource People:

Contact the Indian Studies Program for assistance in finding people with expertise as:

Historians
Grandparents with subsistence knowledge
Artisans

CONTENTS
Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction

Kindergarten
Teacher Overview
Teacher Summary
Lesson Plans/Handouts
Teacher Activity Worksheet
Resource Listing

Third Grade
Teacher Overview
Teacher Summary
Lesson Plans/Handouts
Teacher Activity Worksheet
Resource Listing

First Grade
Teacher Overview
Teacher Summary
Lesson Plans/Handouts
Teacher Activity Worksheet
Resource Listing

Fourth Grade
Teacher Overview
Teacher Summary
Lesson Plans/Handouts
Teacher Activity Worksheet
Resource Listing

Second Grade
Teacher Overview
Teacher Summary
Lesson Plans/Handouts
Teacher Activity Worksheet
Resource Listing

Fifth Grade
Teacher Overview
Teacher Summary
Lesson Plans/Handouts
Teacher Activity Worksheet
Resource Listing

 

 
 

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Last modified August 18, 2006