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Native Pathways to Education
Alaska Native Cultural Resources
Indigenous Knowledge Systems
Indigenous Education Worldwide
 

Southeast RavenLiving in a Fish Camp

ELEMENTARY CURRICULUM GUIDE
Grades K - 5

JUNEAU INDIAN STUDIES PROGRAM
City and Borough of Juneau School District

JUNEAU INDIAN STUDIES PROGRAM
10014 Crazy Horse Dr.
Juneau, Alaska 99801

Department of Education
Title IV-A Indian Education Act
Grant #N008500191

*NO portion to be reproduced without the written consent of the Juneau Indian Studies Program.

FIFTH GRADE

Due to Alaska's environmental resource diversity, some items can only be found in certain parts of Alaska. The value placed on such commodities led to the development of a complicated system of trade among the Athabaskans of the interior and the Tlingits of southeastern.

The fifth grade curriculum is designed to develop a greater understanding by students of Alaska's trade history. The learner is focused on the respect shown to our natural resources, without which we would be unable to survive. Once an understanding of respect toward nature is taught, the students learn more about the items that are traded.

The unit concludes by having a trade game which enhances the student's understanding of trade.. .a time when cultures come together to share a mutual respect toward our natural resources. 

Social Studies Emphasis: United States History

TEACHER INFORMATION SUMMARY

PURPOSE:
Trading is an important means for supplementing ones s resources. This unit allows the student to study and identify items traded by the Athabaskans-and the Tlingits. The trade game enhances the student's understanding of trading and expands their knowledge of the importance of our natural resources.

UNIT: Athabaskan Trading

Day 1 Alaskan Cultures

Values:
  • Respect for others

Knowledge:

  • People and cultures of Alaska
  • Natural Resources found in Interior Alaska
  • Skills:
  • Map
  • Listening
  • Reading

Day 2 How Respect is Shown

Values:
  • Respect for animals
  • Respect for others

Knowledge:

  • Athabascans tell stories as a means of showing respect towards animals

Skills:

  • Listening
  • Reading aloud
  • Working independently

Day 3 Athabaskan and Tlingit Trade Items

Knowledge:
  • Athabaskan natural resources
  • Gathering of natural resources
  • Island and Mainland territories of the Tlingit
  • Trading between Athabaskans and Tlingits

Skills:

  • Listening
  • Identifying trade items

Day 4 Museum Trip

Knowledge:
  • viewing actual Athabaskan and Tlingit trade items

Skills:

  • Listening
  • Patience
  • Observing

Day 5 Trade Games Procedures

Knowledge:
  • How the trade game is played
  • How trade cards will be used
  • Description of our trade game setting

Skills:

  • Listening
  • Identifying trade items

Day 6 Athabaskan Trade Cards

Knowledge:
  • Identify and draw trade items

Skills:

  • Listening
  • Following directions
  • Drawing
  • Coloring

Day 7 Trade Day

Knowledge:
  • Athabaskans traded with the Tlingits to
  • obtain a variety of goods

Skills:

  • Listening skills
  • Observing
  • Participating

Fifth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Athabaskan Trading
Lesson: Alaska's Cultures

Materials:

  • 30 large pieces (12"x17") of construction paper to make an ''Indian Studies'' notebook
  • Globe of the world
  • Large map of Alaska's Native People*
  • 30 copies of Return of the Stranger, produced by the Alaska State Museum*

*Available from the Indian Studies Office

Objectives:

  • Students will be able to discuss what "culture" means to them
  • Students will review the names of the major Alaskan native groups
  • Students will read Return of the Stranger

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Show the globe of the world to the students. Explain that if they lived here 200 years ago, it would have been difficult to travel without modern ways of transportation. There are oceans, mountains, deserts, etc. that were added obstacles when traveling many years back. Therefore, people stayed in their own area and few explored beyond. People rarely saw others outside their own culture" and as a result there was little outside contact or influence. People's cultures or their way of life remained intact.

Explain to the students that people all around the world have many ways that are similar to one another as well as many ways that are different.

Tack the Alaska language map up where the students can see it. Review the names of the major Alaskan native groups. Ask the students why there are so many different names for these groups of people that live in Alaska.

We are now going to read a booklet entitled, Return of the Stranger. This booklet is about a stranger that has come from another planet. He has landed in Alaska where he discovers a variety of cultures.

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

Tell the students that they will be making an Indian Studies notebook. This is where they are to place all Indian Studies handout sheets.

Pass out construction paper. Fold in half and write Indian Studies and your name on the front.

Activity (Closure)

Pick up notebooks. Tell the students that we will be learning more about the Athabaskans throughout the week. Where are the Athabaskans located?

 

Return of the Stranger
Click here to view Return of the Stranger, a publication from the Alaska State Museum

Fifth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Athabaskan Trading
Lesson: How Respect is Shown

Materials:

  • 30 copies of When People Meet Animals, a booklet by Patricia Partnow*
  • 30 worksheets entitled What Athabaskans Think of Animals, Patricia Partnow*
  • 30 worksheets entitled What I Think of Animals, by Patricia Partnow*

*Available from the Indian Studies Office

Objectives:

  • Students will read When People Meet Animals
  • Students will complete a worksheet entitled What Athabaskans Think of Animals
  • Students will complete a worksheet entitled What I Think of Animals
  • Students will discuss why the Athabaskans told these animal stories

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Explain to the students that the Athabaskans, just like the Tlingits, depended on their natural resources to survive. Why is this? An important resource that they depended up were the animals. What would the Athabaskans use animals for?

Activity (Instruction)

Pass out Xeroxed copies of When People Meet Animals and the two worksheets that go along with the stories. Have the students read the stories and then answer the worksheets. We will be discussing the Athabaskan stories as a group once everyone has completed both worksheets. Be sure to read the instructions on the worksheets before answering them.

Activity (Guided Practice)

Monitor the activity by walking around the room. If anyone needs further assistance, have them raise their hand.

Activity (Independent Practice)

If a student has completed both worksheets early, have them illustrate a scene from one of the animal stories that they have just read.

Activity (Closure)

Once everyone has completed their worksheet, discuss the stories as a group. What did they think of the animal stories? Why do you think the Athabaskans told these stories?

Remind the students that the Athabaskans, as well as the Tlingits, believed that everything had a spirit, especially the animals. If they did not respect these animals, then they felt the animals would not return.

 

When People Meet Animals, Chapter 1

 

Adapted from Guedon's People of Tetlin, Why are You Singing? 1974: pages 47-48.

NIHTS'IIL

During the spring, Upper Tanana Athabaskans used to gather nihts'iil, which are little roots that muskrats find and hide in their caches. One day a little girl found one of these caches on a lake and took out all the nihts'iil to take home to her family. She was very excited and very proud of herself when she got home with the tasty food.

"Mom!" she said, "I found a muskrat cache! Here's some nihts 'iil."

"You've got to pay for the nihts'iil," her mother said when she saw the pile of roots. "Don't forget to leave something in the cache for the muskrat."

"Oh, Mom," her daughter answered, "Who would ever know! The muskrat wouldn't know that I was the one that took the nihts'iil. What does it matter?"

"Yes," her mother answered. "The muskrat will know. You've got to pay for what you take. The muskrat worked hard to fill his cache, and you shouldn't empty it without paying for it." 

The daughter still wasn't convinced.

"What happens if I don't pay for it?" she asked.

The mother answered, "If you don't pay, the muskrat will go into our cache, and take out all our meat."

The little girl went back to the cache and left a little bit of cloth for the muskrat.

 

When People Meet Animals, Chapter 2

Adapted from Sullivan's The Ten'a Quest, 1942 :pages 107-108.

THE FEMALE BEAVER

There is a Koyukon story that the old people used to tell to their grandchildren on winter nights, when all the children were warm between fur blankets. The fire in the middle of the winter sod house would be burning low and the smell of the smoke would blend with the smell of fresh spruce boughs covering the floor.

The story went like this:

A young man was coming home from a hunting trip late one winter day. He had been walking through deep snow all day and was very tired, but decided to keep walking until he got back to camp. He walked and walked but didn't see any of the familiar signs of home. He suddenly realized that he was lost!

It was dark by now but he kept walking, hoping that he would find the camp of another band. Then, he saw a fire through the trees. There was a camp ahead next to a lake. He started running toward it, and when he got to the camp, was happy to see people, at last!

The man was greeted by people. They told him that though they looked like people to him, they were really beavers. He had strayed out of human territory and into beaver land.

The young man was very tired. He looked around at the beaver's camp. He saw a pretty young woman next to one of the houses. Although he knew she was really a beaver, he decided to take her as his wife and to stay in the beaver camp. He lived there all winter long, with his new wife and her relatives.

When spring came, the young man knew that it was time to go back to his own home. But springtime is the time of hunger, and the beavers had no extra food to send with the young man for his trip home.

The beaver people talked it over. They could not give the man food from their caches but they decided they would let him take one of their children as food for his trip.

The young man's wife offered to be killed. She would become food for her husband and keep him alive.

Her parents looked at their son-in-law and said to him, "When you have finished with the meat, you must throw the bones into the water, and say 'Tonon Litseey'." This means "be made again in the water.

The young man agreed, and set off for his home village with the beaver meat.

The man got home safely, thanks to the meat he had been given. When he had eaten it all, he threw the bones into the water and said, "Tonon Litseey."

Suddenly the female beaver who had been his wife appeared in the water where he had thrown the bones. She swam away to her parents' lodge.

The old people would end their story by saying, "And ever since that time, we have followed the custom of throwing beaver bones into the water after we have eaten the meat."

 

When People Meet Animals, Chapter 3 

Adapted from Osgood's The Ethnography of the Tanaina, 1966: pages 148-149.

FIRST SALMON STORY

The Tanaina Athabaskans used to tell a story about a salmon. It goes something like this:

One spring day when it was just about time for the salmon run to begin, a rich Tanaina man put out his fish trap as he always did at that time of year. He hoped to catch enough salmon to last his family for the whole year. The man told his daughter not to go near the fish trap.

His daughter was curious. She wondered why her father did not want her to see the trap. So, instead of obeying him, she walked down to the river toward the trap.

"I'll be back in a little while," she called to her father as she walked away.

When the girl got down to the river, she went straight to the trap. A big king salmon was swimming around in the water and she started talking to him.

They talked and talked and before she knew what was happening, she had turned into a salmon herself! She slid into the water and disappeared with the big king salmon.

The girl's father looked everywhere for his daughter. He could not find her. Every day he called her and searched for her but she never returned.

The next year, when the salmon run was about to start again, the rich man set out his fish trap as usual. The first time he checked it, he saw that it was filled with many beautiful salmon. The man threw them all out on the grass and began cleaning them. He left the smallest fish for last.

Finally, all but the last small fish had been cleaned. The man turned to pick the little salmon and saw that where the fish had been, there was now a little boy!

The man walked around the boy, staring at him. He walked around him three times. And finally, the third time, he knew why the boy looked familiar. He looked just like the man's lost daughter. The man suddenly knew that this young boy was his grandson, the son of his missing daughter.

The boy spoke to his grandfather. He told him all the things he should do to show his respect for the salmon. He told the man how to cut the sticks to dry the salmon, and how to be careful not to drop the salmon on the ground while they were being dried. And he told the man that each year, when the first salmon of the year was caught, the people should hold a ceremony for that salmon. They must wash themselves and dress up in their finest clothes. And they must clean and cook the first fish without breaking its backbone. The insides must be thrown back into the water.

The boy explained that if the man and his people did all these things, they would have a good year, and would catch many salmon. But if they did not follow the rules, the salmon would never return to them.

The Tanaina used this story to explain to their children how the First Salmon Ceremony got started and why it was performed each year in the springtime. The people did everything the young salmon boy had told his grandfather to do.

 

When People Meet Animals, Chapter 4

Adapted from Sullivan's The Ten'a Food Quest, 1942: 86.

 

"A BEAR HUNT"

A Koyukon Athabaskan man and his son had been out hunting one winter day. On the way back to camp, they discovered a bear hole. The older man stuck the end of his long bear spear into the hole, hoping to wake the bear up and make him leave his hole. He poked and poked, while his son stood nearby with his own spear ready to stab the bear as it came out of the hole.

The bear started growling. The man felt him moving about, he was going to come out! As the big animal emerged angrily from his den, the two men panicked. The son lunged at him with his sharp-pointed spear. His father followed with another stab at the bear. There was a struggle and the bear fell down, and slid back into his den.

The two men were horrified. They knew that after a bear has been killed, its forepaws must be cut off, and its eyes must be burst. Although the bear was dead, its spirit, or yega, could still harm the men if these things were not done.

The man and his son tried to remove the bear from the hole, but it was already dark by this time and the bear was very heavy. They could not pull it out.

The men returned to camp. They felt very worried because they had not followed the rules. The bear's yega would be angry. Days and weeks went by and nothing had happened to either one. Finally, they forgot about the dead bear in its den.

A year later, the son went blind. The people in his band said he had gone blind because he had broken a rule, he had failed to burst the bear's eyes after killing it.

 

Name: __________________________

WHAT ATHABASKANS THINK OF ANIMALS
Worksheet

MULTIPLE CHOICE: Circle the letter in front of the correct ending to the sentence. You may use the book, When People Meet Animals, to check your memory.

1. The little girl in the story called Nihts'iil was told to give the muskrat something because:
a. The chief had made a law about it

b. It was her pet muskrat

c. It's not nice to take something without giving something in return

2. In The Female Beaver the man threw the beaver bones back into the water because he felt:

a. That he wanted to get rid of the garbage

b. Thankful that he had been saved from starvation

c. Afraid of what would happen to him if he hadn't

3. In First Salmon Story the girl turned into a salmon because:

a. She disobeyed her father

b. It looked like so much fun to be swimming in the river

c. She slipped and fell into the water

4. The girl's son returned to the world of people because:

a. He had learned something that he wanted to share with the people

b. He was accidentally caught in a trap

c. He missed his grandfather

5. In A Bear Hunt the man and his son were worried because:

a. They would go hungry without the bear meat

b. They had not followed the rules of the hunt

c. They thought the bear's mother would be after them

6. In the old days, if an Athabaskan did not follow certain rules towards animals, he felt:

a. That the animals' spirit would be mad at him

b. That rules were stupid anyway

c. That maybe no one would notice

7. An Athabaskan feels that animals are like people because:

a. They look like people

b. They act like people

c. They have feelings like people

 

Name: __________________________

WHAT ATHABASKANS THINK OF ANIMALS
Worksheet

DIRECTIONS: Each sentence below asks you to make a choice: would you or wouldn't you do what the people in When People Meet Animals did?

Circle the one you believe. It also asks you to explain your choice. WRITE YOUR OWN OPINION. THERE ARE NO RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWERS.

1. If I had been the little girl in the story, Nihts'ill, I (would) (would not) have given the muskrat something in return for the nihts'iil because:

 

2. If I were the man in The Female Beaver, I (would) (would not) have thrown the bones into the water because:

 

3. If I had been the grandfather in First Salmon Story, I (would) (would not) have followed the rules my grandson gave me because:

 

4. If I had been the man in A Bear Hunt, I (would) (would not) have been worried because:

 

5. I feel that animals (are) (are not) like people because: 

 

Fifth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Athabaskan Trading
Lesson: Athabaskan and Tlingit Trade Items

Materials:

  • Examples of Athabaskan and Tlingit trade items (i.e., artifacts, photographs, etc.)*
  • 30 copies of Southeast Alaska Trade Route maps
  • A variety of natural resources that the trade items were made from (i.e. , moose hide, caribou hide, birchwood, etc. )*
  • Large map of Alaska's Native People* 

* Available from the Indian Studies Office

Objectives:

  • Students will be able to differentiate between the Tlingit villages located on islands and the Tlingit villages located on the mainland by looking at a map of Alaska
  • Students will participate in a discussion on trading

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Introduce the concept of trading. Why do people trade? Why do you suppose the Athabaskans traded? Who did they trade with? Expound on these questions.

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

Talk about the trade routes that the Athabaskans used to trade with their neighbors, the Tlingits. Point out these routes on the large Alaska map. Talk about the rough journeys that these people had and the weight that they had to carry.

Ask the students what the Athabaskans had to trade. Think of their natural resources - for instance, moose hide, caribou hides, etc. What could they make with these materials? Bring samples of the Athabaskan natural resources and items that could be made from them.

Briefly show the students some of the Tlingit items that the Athabaskans wanted in return.

Activity (Closure)

Explain to the students that they will be involved in a trade game. They will represent the Athabaskan group. Tomorrow, we

will be going over the trade game in detail. The following day, we will take a trip to the museum to view some Athabaskan and Tlingit trade items.

Answer any questions that the students may have on the concept of trading.

Tlingit Trading
Click here to see bigger image

 

Fifth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Athabaskan Trading
Lesson: Museum Trip 

Materials:

  • One scheduled bus to the Alaska State Museum
  • Schedule a date and a time with the museum for a field trip. They will provide a person to lecture if there is advance notice.

Objectives:

  • Students will observe the trade items made by the Athabaskans and the Tlingits from the islands and mainland
  • Students will be able to contrast these items

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Remind the students that they will be going to the museum today and they are to show their respect. How can we do this?

They will be listening to the museum lecturer. She will show you a variety of Athabaskan and Tlingit trade items. Pay close attention to these items, because tomorrow, you will be responsible in making your own Athabaskan trade cards. You will draw and color trade items, so try to get some ideas from the museum visit.

The museum lecturer will be your teacher for the hour. We're to follow her instructions.

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

The museum trip will be the activity for the day. Assist the museum lecturer in any way possible.

Activity (Closure)

Review with the students about their trip to the museum. Did they get any good ideas on how to draw trade items? Share their information as a class.

Also, did they notice the difference between the Athabaskan and Tlingit trade items? How were these items alike or different?

 

Fifth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Athabaskan Trading
Lesson: Trade Game Procedures

Materials:

  • Resources on Tlingit Trading:
    • Under Mount St. Elias by Frederica deLaguna*
    • The Social Economy of the Tlingit Indians by Oberg*
    • The Tlingit Trade Game, a teachers guide, by Partnow*
  • Trade cards representing items from the island Tlingits, mainland Tlingits and the Athabaskans

*Available from the Indian Studies Office

Objectives:

  • Students will observe the rules to the Tlingit trade game in which they will participate in during the next few days
  • The class will practice playing the trade game with the instructor

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Begin with a review from yesterday's lesson. Ask the students what items were traded by the Tlingits from the islands, the Tlingits from the mainland and the Athabaskans. What items did these three groups of people want in return?

Explain to the students that certain trade routes were owned by different clans. The Tlingits that lived on the mainland near the large rivers had the advantage for trading with the Tlingits from the islands and the Athabaskans. (Refer to the resources listed under Materials). The mainland Tlingits acted as a middleman in trading between the island Tlingits and the Athabaskans. If the Athabaskans wanted a product from the island Tlingits, they would have to go through the mainland Tlingits. If the island Tlingits wanted an Athabaskan product, they, too, would have to go through the middleman, the mainland Tlingits.

When the Tlingits traded, they had a trade partner. (Refer to Under Mount St. Elias by deLaguna).

Explain to the students that they will be involved in a Tlingit Trade Game in a few days. The instructor will be going over the rules to this trade game.

Ideally there should be three classes involved in the game. One class (Fourth Graders) would represent the mainland Tlingits.

Tlingit Islanders

At the beginning of the game, the islanders WILL TRADE the following items:

  • 2 Cedar Bark Baskets*
  • 2 Irons*
  • 2 Shell Ornaments*
  • 1 Seal Oil

Tlingit Islanders

At the end of the game, the islanders WILL WANT the follow-items:

  • 1 Moosehide (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Copper (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Birchwood Bow (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Mountain Goat Horn Spoon (Mainland Tlingit)
  • 1 Chilkat Blanket (Mainland Tlingit)

Tlingit Mainlanders

At the beginning of the game, the mainlanders WILL TRADE the following items:

  • 1 Eulachon Oil
  • 1 Cranberries in Oil
  • 1 Mountain Goat Horn Spoon
  • 1 Chilkat Blanket

Tlingit Mainlanders

At the end of the game, the mainlanders WILL WANT the following items:

  • 1 Moosehide (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Copper (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Birchwood Bow (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Caribou Hide (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Wolf Moss (Athabaskan)
  • 1 Iron (Tlingit Islanders)
  • 1 Shell Ornament (Tlingit (Islanders)
  • 1 Cedar Bark Basket (Tlingit Islanders)
  • 1 Seal Oil (Tlingit Islanders)

Athabaskans

At the beginning of the game, the Athabaskans WILL TRADE the following items:

  • 2 Moosehides*
  • 2 Coppers*
  • 2 Birchwood Bows*
  • 1 Caribou Hide
  • 1 Wolf Moss

Athabaskans

At the end of the game, the Athabaskans WILL WANT the following items:

  • 1 Iron (Tlingit Islanders)
  • 1 Cedar Bark Basket (Tlingit Islanders)
  • 1 Shell Ornament (Tlingit Islanders)
  • 1 Cranberries in Oil (Mainland Tlingit)
  • 1 Eulachon Oil (Mainland Tlingit)

* Indicate two for one trade items for the Mainland Tlingit

Another class (also Fourth Graders) would represent the island Tlingits and the Athabaskans would be represented by yet another class (Fifth Graders).

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

Explain to the students that before the trade game begins, the instructor will decorate a classroom. It should look like the mainland Tlingits have traveled a distance and have set up a camp. This will be where the mainlanders will trade with the islanders and Athabaskans.

The mainlanders will stay in this trading area during the entire game. Remember, the mainlanders are the "middlemen" between the islanders and the Athabaskans.

Then, the Athabaskans will pretend like they've hiked a great distance to trade with the mainlanders. The Athabaskans will be greeted by the mainlanders. To determine your partner, the mainlanders will be in a single line. The first Athabaskan in line will be the partner of the first mainlander, and so on. (This will prevent confusion). The students must remember who their partner is, because they will be trading together twice during this trading game.

The mainlander will take their Athabaskan trade partner back to their tent or around the fake fire pit to begin trading.

This is a description of how the trading game will take place...

Each group (the mainland Tlingits, island Tlingits and Athabaskans) will have trade cards representing their trade goods. Put on the chalkboard or posterboard, a list of what each group of people will have to trade at the beginning of the game and a list of items that they will want by the end of the trade game.

Remember, the Mainland Tlingits are the middlemen. Mainlanders, because of their intermediate position, extract a commission from each trade, thereby becoming quite rich in items.

If either the Athabaskans or the islanders want to trade an item that both other groups of people would like (for example, the Athabaskans want to trade copper and both the mainlanders and the islanders want copper), then the mainlanders will only give them one item for two.

The Two-for-One items are:

Tlingit Islanders

Athabaskans

  • Cedar Bark Baskets*
  • Birchwood Bows*
  • Shell Ornaments*
  • Copper*
  • Iron*
  • Moosehide*
 

If the Athabaskans want to trade copper, the mainlanders will give the Athabaskans one item (for example, cranberries in oil) for 2 coppers. Then the mainlanders are able to trade one of the coppers to the islanders.

(*) The asterisk indicates two-for-one trade items for the mainlanders

The object of the game is to trade the abundant items for the needed or wanted items from the other groups of people.

Once the Athabaskans have traded with the mainlanders for about 5 minutes, the Athabaskans will leave the trading room. After the Athabaskans have left the room, the mainlanders will stand in a line waiting for the islanders to arrive. The islanders will pretend that they have canoed a great distance to trade. Establish trade partners. (This will be done the same way that trade partners were established for the Athabaskans).

The mainlanders will then take their islander trade partner back to their tent or around the tent to trade. Trading will take place for 5 minutes. After 5 minutes of trading, the islanders will leave the room.

The Athabaskans will come back to the trading area and go back to their same trading partner. They will trade with the mainlanders for 5 minutes. (This will be the second time that the mainlanders and Athabaskans have traded). Why is this? The Athabaskans come back to trade for the second time so that they can get the islander items that the mainlanders have now. After the Athabaskans have traded for 5 minutes, they will leave the room.

The islanders will come back for their second time of trading with the mainlanders. They will trade for 5 minutes with the same mainlander trade partner in hope of getting some Athabaskan trade items.

Activity (Closure)

After all students have traded, get the three groups together to discuss the trade game. What did they learn? Sometimes, the students find it unfair that the mainlanders come out with more of a variety of items.

Tell the students that the islanders and the Athabaskans were also the middlemen with other groups surrounding them.

The students also need to know that we do not know the authentic exchange rate of trade items. This trade game is not accurate with the rates of exchange, but the students do get a feel of what trading is all about. They learn what natural resources were available to trade and the items that they would like in return.

Teacher Note:

The cards following this lesson must be duplicated and cut out before handing out to students.

cards
cards
cards
cards

Fifth Grade Lesson Plans 

Unit: Athabaskan Trading
Lesson: Trade Cards 

Materials:

  • White paper to draw trade items
  • Colored pencils, markers or crayons
  • Resource books on Athabaskan trade items, Athabaskan clothing, Alaskan animals, etc.
  • Samples of trade items (i.e., wolf moss, copper, caribou hide, birchwood bows, moose hides, moose hide moccasins, etc.)
  • Examples of trade cards (Athabaskan)

*Available from the Indian Studies Office

Objectives:

  • Students will draw trade cards representing Athabaskan items to use for a trade game

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

Tell the students that we will be needing trade cards which will represent Athabaskan items. We will use these trade cards for the trade game.

Activity (Instruction)

Each student will need to complete a set of trade cards to play the game. You will need to draw a picture of the following items: 2 moose hide, 2 coppers, 2 birchwood bows, 1 caribou hide and 1 wolf moss.

Each item will be drawn on a separate piece of paper. Therefore, you should have eight trade cards.

Place resource books, samples of trade items, white paper drawing and colored pencils on a table.

Show the students an example of how they can make their trade cards. The students should draw a picture of the trade item. Above the drawing they need to write Athabaskan, since this is the group that they are representing. Underneath the drawing, they must write what the trade item is (i.e., moose hide). They also need to place a star in the upper right hand corner for only the following items:

  • Moose hide
  • Birchwood Bows
  • Copper

Tell the students that they can borrow the resource books from the table, if they don't know how a certain trade item may look. Also, they may use the white paper and colored pencils.

Activity (Guided Practice)

Monitor the activity by walking around the classroom. If students are having problems getting started, refer them to the resource table. For those students that need additional help, have them raise their hand.

Activity (Independent Practice)

Students that may finish early, can help the instructor assist with those students that may need extra help. They can also draw other trade items to keep for themselves.

Activity (Closure)

Have the students write their name and teacher's name on the back of their trade cards. Remind them to write the group that they are representing (Athabaskan) and the name of the trade item onto their trade cards.

Also, the students must place a star on the upper right hand corner for the following trade cards:

  • Moose hide
  • Birchwood Bows
  • Copper
cards
cards

Fifth Grade Lesson Plans

Unit: Athabaskan Trading
Lesson: Trade Day

Materials:

  • 3 fish camp tents (refer to trading area handout)
  • Fake rocks, firepit and fish roasting over firepit*
  • Fake blueberry bushes, skunk cabbage, devil's club, etc.*
  • Furs, bentwood boxes, mountain goat spoons, etc., to place in or around tents*
  • Button blankets for students representing mainland Tlingits
  • Shells, cedar bark, etc., for the students representing the island Tlingits*
  • Hides, bows and arrows, etc., for the students representing the Athabaskans*
  • 30 copies of "want list", a list of goods (or cards) that students should have by the end of the trade game

* Available from the Indian Studies Office

Objectives:

  • Students will participate in a Tlingit trade game
  • Students will trade cards representing trade items with their trade partner
  • Students will observe that the Tlingits traded with each other and with the Athabaskans to obtain a variety of goods
  • Students will observe that the mainland Tlingits were the "middlemen" between the island Tlingits and the Athabaskans

Introduction (Set/Purpose)

The instructor or instructors will need to speak to each class representing the different groups (i.e. , island Tlingit, mainland Tlingit and Athabaskan). Each class will need to be briefed on the rules to the trade game.

One of the classrooms should be decorated to look like the outdoors. This should be done in advance before the trade game begins.

The mainland Tlingits will stay in the decorated room throughout the trade game. The island Tlingits and Athabaskans will be coming in and out of this room twice to trade with the mainlanders.

Refer to the lesson in Trade Game Procedures for instructions on how the Trade Game should be played.

It is necessary to let the students know when their 5 minutes is up for trading, because the Athabaskans will leave the trading area to allow for the islanders to trade. The students will need a cue that won't distract them so they will know when it is time to leave the room. One suggestion is to leave the lights out (using natural lighting) during the trading. When 5 minutes is up, quickly flick the lights on as a cue to leave.

Provide the mainlanders with button blankets to wear while trading. (These may be obtained through the Indian Studies Program.) Provide the islanders with something to carry to the trade game to represent that they are from the island. Students should be provided a "want list'' which tells them what items they should have by the end of the game.

Activity (Instruction and Guided Practice)

Student will be involved in a trade game. Refer to the rules of the trade game in the lesson entitled Trade Game Procedures.

The instructor will monitor the activity by walking around the room seeing if everyone is involved in their trading cards. The object of the game is to receive a variety of goods (or cards). Make sure that the students refer to their "want list". Many times they will forget some of the items they may want in return due to the excitement of the game.

Activity (Closure)

After the trade game is complete, gather all the students together into one room. Ask the students how they felt about the trade game. Do they now have an understanding of how important it was to trade?

Some students feel frustrated when they cannot directly trade with the other group (i.e., Athabaskans and islanders never saw each other). They also felt it was unfair that the mainland Tlingits seemed to get the best variety of goods.

Expound on this!

MAINLAND TLINGIT 'WANT LIST"

The Mainland Tlingits will have the following cards BEFORE the trade game begins:

1 Eulachon Oil
1 Cranberries in Oil
1 Mountain Goat Horn Spoon
1 Chilkat Blanket

Remember that when you see an islander or Athabaskan card with a star (*), you must take 2 of those cards and in exchange give only one card.

By the END of the trade game, the mainland Tlingits should have

1 Moosehide

(from the Athabaskans)

1 Copper

(from the Athabaskans)

1 Birchwood Bow

(from the Athabaskans)

1 Caribou Hide

(from the Athabaskans)

1 Wolf Hide

(from the Athabaskans)

1 Iron

(from the island Tlingits)

1 Shell Ornament

(from the island Tlingits)

1 Cedar Bark Basket

(from the island Tlingits)

1 Seal Oil

(from the island Tlingits)

ISLAND TLINGIT "WANT LIST"

The Island Tlingits will have the following cards BEFORE the trade game begins:

2 Cedar Bark Baskets*
2 Irons*
2 Shell Ornaments*

Remember that when the (*) is on a card it means that you must trade 2 cards in exchange for 1 mainlander card.

By the END of the trade game, the island Tlingits should have the following items:

1 Mountain Goat Horn Spoon

(from the mainland Tlingits)

1 Chilkat Blanket

(from the mainland Tlingits)

1 Birchwood Bow

(from the Athabaskans)

1 Copper

(from the Athabaskans)

1 Moosehide

(from the Athabaskans)

ATHABASKAN "WANT LIST"

The Athabaskans will have the following cards BEFORE the trade game begins:

2 Moosehides*
2 Coppers*
2 Birchwood Bows*
1 Caribou Hide
1 Wolf Moss

Remember that when the (*) is on a card it means that you must trade 2. cards in exchange for 1 mainlander card.

By the END of the game, the Athabaskans should have the following items:

1 Iron

(from the island Tlingits)

1 Cedar Bark Basket

(from the island Tlingits)

1 Shell Ornament

(from the island Tlingits)

1 Cranberries in Oil

(from the mainland Tlingits)

Eulachon Oil

(from the mainland Tlingits)

 

ACTIVITY IDEAS FOR

 

MATHEMATICS

SCIENCE

ART

READING

LANGUAGE ARTS

OTHER

Fifth Grade Resources
Available from the Indian Studies Program

Books for Students:

Return of the Stranger, by The Alaska State Museum
When People Meet Animals, by Patricia Partnow, Anchorage School District
Athabaskan Prehistory, by Kathleen Lynch
At the Mouth of the Luckiest River, by Arnold A. Griese

Books for the Teacher:

The Social Economy of the Tlingit Indians, by Oberg
The Tlingit Trade Game, Teacher's Guide, by Patricia Partnow, Anchorage School District
The Athabaskans: People of the Boreal Forest, by Richard K. Nelson
Make Prayers to the Raven: A Koyukon View of the Northern Forest, by Richard K. Nelson
Alaska's Native People, by Alaska Geographic 
Any of the following biographies by the Yukon-Koyukuk School District:
Frank Tobuk, Evansville
John Honea, Ruby
Roger Dayton, Koyukuk
Edwin Simon, Huslia
Oscar Nictune Sr., Alanta
Moses Henzie, Allakaket
Henry Beetus Sr., Hughes
Madeline Solomon, Koyukuk
Joe Beetus, Hughes

Resources Available at the Local Library:

Under Mount St. Elias, By Frederica de Laguna

Other Resources Available from the Indian Studies Program:

birchwood
moosehide
bows and arrows
wolf moss
shell ornaments
cedar bark baskets
Chilkat Blanket
Mountain Goat Horn spoon
Bentwood Box
Three fish camp tents
fire pit and roasting fish
blueberry bush
skunk cabbage
devil's club
furs
Button Blanket

Study Prints:

large Alaska map
moose
caribou
birch trees
Athabaskan People
canoe
environment
clothing

Resource People:

Contact the Indian Studies Program for assistance in finding people with expertise as:

Historians
Artisans
Grandparents with subsistence knowledge

CONTENTS
Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction

Kindergarten
Teacher Overview
Teacher Summary
Lesson Plans/Handouts
Teacher Activity Worksheet
Resource Listing

Third Grade
Teacher Overview
Teacher Summary
Lesson Plans/Handouts
Teacher Activity Worksheet
Resource Listing

First Grade
Teacher Overview
Teacher Summary
Lesson Plans/Handouts
Teacher Activity Worksheet
Resource Listing

Fourth Grade
Teacher Overview
Teacher Summary
Lesson Plans/Handouts
Teacher Activity Worksheet
Resource Listing

Second Grade
Teacher Overview
Teacher Summary
Lesson Plans/Handouts
Teacher Activity Worksheet
Resource Listing

Fifth Grade
Teacher Overview
Teacher Summary
Lesson Plans/Handouts
Teacher Activity Worksheet
Resource Listing

 

 
 

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Alaska Native Knowledge Network
University of Alaska Fairbanks
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Phone (907) 474.1902
Fax (907) 474.1957
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Last modified August 18, 2006