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Winds
And
Weather

by Jonas Ramoth and Sidney Stephens

Activity Series 2 - Heat Absorption and Radiation*

"When you see what looks like fog rising from the lakes and ponds, their heat temperature is balancing with the air's." **

 Temperature Material Starting 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min Change water dry sand wet sand dry charcoal wet charcoal

 7. Record temperature readings at 5-minute intervals for the next 10 minutes (temperature can also be read at shorter intervals if desired). 8. Turn off the lamp and record temperatures at 5-minute intervals for another 10 minutes. 9. Calculate heat gain and heat loss for each material. 10. Using different colored pens for each material, create a line graph of data. Generalize 11. Of the dry materials, which showed the greatest temperature change, light or dark? Of the wet solids? 12. Did the dry solid show more temperature increase than the same solid when wet? 13. Did the temperature of the water increase as much as the temperature of the solids? 14. When the light was turned off, which of the substances cooled the most in 5 minutes? The least? Activity 2b Explore/ Generalize 15. This activity suggests that the amount of heat radiated into the air depends upon the kind of material that is beneath the air. Design, conduct and analyze an experiment, either indoors or out, to further test this hypothesis. (Note: since so little of the sun's energy reaches Alaska during the winter, this activity, if done outdoors, is best done in spring or fall. See Activity Series 4 Heating the Earth.) Apply/Assess 16. Uneven absorption and emission of heat sets up convection currents that produce winds. Classic examples of this are land and sea breezes, illustrated below. "In the daytime, the shore warms more easily than the water. Air over the shore rises and cooler air from above the water takes its place. The result is a sea breeze. At night the process reverses as the shore cools off more quickly than the water - the warmer air is now over the sea."******

 __________ 17. If the average sea surface temperature of Kotzebue Sound is 12 C° during July, and the average high and low land air temperatures are 20C° and 4C° , (assume daytime and nighttime temperatures), would the same land breeze/sea breeze phenomena apply? Does this match your experience and those of the TF? 18. Do you suppose this land/sea breeze phenomenon holds true for Selawik Lake in July? If so, why? Diagram the convection currents/wind direction you'd expect during the day and at night. 19. Does this prediction match your observations and those of the TF? 20. How might you expect Selawik Lake to influence local winds during the dead of winter? (For performance assessments also, see http://www.ctl.sri.com/pals for Grades 5-8: "Heat Retention" and "Sun and Temperatures")

* Adapted from Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (1972) p.7-10

** Martz, C. (1999) p. 5

*** Hewitt, P.G. (1998) p. 276

**** Adapted from Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (1972)

***** Martz, C. (1999) p. 5

****** Hewitt, P. 1997, p 328

Standards

Section I - Observing Locally

Section II - Understanding Wind

Section III - Connecting Globally

Appendix A - Selawik Weather Information from Jonas Ramoth

Appendix B - Assessment

Appendix C - Weather Resource List

Appendix D - Interdisciplinary Integration

 Whouy Sze Kuinalth "Teaching Our Many Grandchildren" Tauhna Cauyalitahtug (To Make a Drum) Math Story Problems St. Lawrence Island Rain Parka Winds and Weather Willow Driftwood Snowshoes Moose Plants of the Tundra Animal Classification for Yup'ik Region Rabbit Snaring The Right Tool for the Job Fishing Tools and Technology Blackfish Family Tree Medicinal Plants of the Kodiak Alutiiq Archipelago Beaver in Interior Alaska Digging and Preparing Spruce Roots Moose in Interior Alaska Birds Around the Village

Handbook for Culturally Responsive Science Curriculum by Sidney Stephens
Excerpt: "The information and insights contained in this document will be of interest to anyone involved in bringing local knowledge to bear in school curriculum. Drawing upon the efforts of many people over a period of several years, Sidney Stephens has managed to distill and synthesize the critical ingredients for making the teaching of science relevant and meaningful in culturally adaptable ways."

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