Tools, & Craftsmanship
& Drying Fish
Pegs, & Lashings
Clutch & Chain
& Vapor Barriers
Lamps & Gas Stoves
& Spark Plugs
Motor Lower Unit
Motor Cooling System
- Ask the people in your village what kinds of guns they have.
Is there a favorite manufacturer? Favorite caliber? Favorite action
(bolt, lever, semi-auto)? If people dont want to answer,
be sensitive. Some people in the bush feel that the government
is threatening their rights to have guns and they are reluctant
to let people know what they have.
- Does anyone in your village reload? Ask them about the best
bullets and calibers for hunting in your area. Ask them to demonstrate
reloading a few cartridges.
Reloading by an experienced person is quite safe. Reloading
by an inexperienced person is quite dangerous. Monitor students
activities in this regard.
- Start a collection of different cartridges. Do not take them
from live ammunition! This is very dangerous. Get them from reloaders
in your village, hunters, or from gunshops when you go to town.
Research the history of each cartridge. They all have a story.
This is fascinating. There are many gun books and magazines
that have history woven all through them.
- Usually someone has saved a bullet that has been cut out of
a moose or caribou. Ask around the village for one. Can you see
the grooves imprinted in the bullet from the rifling in the barrel?
Draw the mushroomed bullet. Do you think it hit a bone?
- Try filing the different parts of the bullet. Is it hard or
The lead is quite soft. The copper jacket is a bit harder.
- Ask your local reloading expert to put a primer in a cartridge
and omit the bullet and powder. Let him shoot the primer outside.
Do you now have a sense of how little power is in the primer?
- Ask your reloading expert to put a little powder on a flat
surface and light it with a match. Does it explode or burn quickly?
Smell the burned powder.
Do not let students do this! Demonstrate only.
- Scrape the lead on a .22 cartridge with your fingernail. Can
you detect the wax to lubricate the bullet?
- Handle lead and steel shot from a shotgun. Can you feel the
difference in weight?
- If a bullet came out of a rifle without spin it would wander.
The best way to observe this is to hit a volleyball underhanded
in the gym. If you hit it with no spin, people on the receiving
end will see it wander, and will have a hard time hitting it.
Research what a knuckle ball is in baseball and how
it is thrown. What is the relationship of this phenomenon to shotgun
Shotgun pellets are like a floater in basketball or a knuckle
ball in baseball. Without spin they tend to wander.
- With the bolt removed from a bolt action rifle (to remove all
danger) look down the barrel. Can you see the rifles? How do you
think police verify that a certain bullet was shot from a certain
They claim to be able to match the rifles in the barrel with the
grooves in the bullet. I dont see how they can with so many
guns made in assembly line manner.
- Feel the recoil pad on some of the rifles and shotguns in the
village. Do you think they would help reduce the kick of the gun?
Do you find recoil pads on .22s? Why?
Recoil pads do help, but a .22 kicks so little a recoil pad
- Bore sight a bolt-action rifle according to the directions given
in the text. Are the sights or scope on target?
If they are not, align them.
- Ask people in your village which they prefer: open sights or
a scope. What are their reasons for their preference? Does it
vary with the animal hunted?
- From a ballistics chart, compare the three top favorite rifles
in your village for velocity of bullet, drop of bullet, and foot
pounds of energy at 100, 200, and 300 yards. Note the differences
for different weight bullets. What are the favorites in your village?
This will vary depending on the animal. A round that is good
for moose in the brush will drop too much for seal on the ocean.
- Draw the trajectory of those three favorite rifles and three
favorite bullet weights.
- Ask the oldtimers what the favorite rifles were long ago and
- Drop two balls of the same size but different weights at the
same time from a given height. Does the heavier one fall faster?
Why or why not?
It defies our thinking, but two balls of the same size will
drop at the same rate even if their weight isnt the same.
The light one will drop at the same speed as the heavy one.
- Ask the good hunters in your village whether they shoot with
one or both eyes open.
- Test the students in your class. Which eye is dominant? Do
they shoot right handed or left handed? Does anyone shoot right
handed with a left eye dominant or vice versa?
- What are the three types of guns?
Rifles, handguns, and shotguns
- Draw a loaded cartridge and label the parts cartridge, powder,
- What are the four differences that must be considered when
choosing a bullet?
Size, shape, jacket, and hardness
- What is the material most often used in making bullets? What
is the jacket material?
Lead with a copper jacket
- What are primers and what do they do?
Primers are like caps in a cap gun. They explode lightly when
struck by the firing pin. Their explosion ignites the gun powder.
- What energy conversions take place as we squeeze the trigger?
What kind of energy is stored in a cartridge?
Kinetic energy of the firing pin creates heat that releases
the chemical energy of the primer, that releases heat energy,
that releases the chemical energy of the powder, which is converted
to kinetic energy of the bullet.
- What is the difference between handgun and rifle powder?
Handgun powder burns faster so it can be completely consumed
before it gets out of the short barrel.
- What element is used in the chemical reaction in a cartridge
that replaces oxygen in the burning process?
- Draw the rifling in the barrel of a rifle.
- What are four kinds of actions of rifles? Name one advantage
Single shot is simple and doesnt often misfire. Bolt
action is reliable and tends to be more accurate. Pump action
is fast and doesnt require the shooter to remove his eye
from the sight while loading another cartridge. Semiautomatic
is very fast.
- What are the two kinds of actions of handguns? Name one advantage
Revolvers are reliable. Semiautomatics are fast. (not in text,
but there are a few single shot handguns.)
- In your own words, what is recoil?
The gun kicking back. As the bullet is pushed out of the barrel,
the gun is pushed back against the shooters hands. (This
is Newtons third law A = R)
- Draw the side view of the process of bore sighting a rifle.
- List three advantages of open sights.
They are reliable
They are inexpensive
They are easy to fix
They dont get out of adjustment easily.
- List three advantages of scopes.
They allow the hunter to see the target clearly
The hunters eye can focus in one place
They gather light
- Draw the trajectory of a fast bullet.
- Draw the trajectory of a slow bullet.
- Phil reloads his own shells for $.30 each. A box of 20 shells
costs $19.95 in the store. His reloading equipment cost $65. Approximately
how long does he have to reload (if he uses an average of 3 boxes
a year) in order to pay for his reloading equipment?
A box cost him $6 to reload. The first year his expenses are
$65 + $18 = $83. The store shells would have cost him $60. By
the middle of the second year, his reloading will have paid for