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Native Pathways to Education
Alaska Native Cultural Resources
Indigenous Knowledge Systems
Indigenous Education Worldwide
 

Alaska Science Camps, Fairs & Experiments

ANKN is a resource for compiling and exchanging information related to Alaska Native knowledge systems and ways of knowing. We are pleased to create and distribute a variety of publications that assist Native people, government agencies, educators and the general public in gaining access to the knowledge base that Alaska Natives have acquired through cumulative experience over millennia.

TO ORDER THIS PUBLICATION:

Contact the ANKN offices at 907-474-1902 or email publications@ankn.uaf.edu.

Culturally Relevant
Science Fairs

 

Science FairsThe Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative (AKRSI) has been funded by the National Science Foundation for many years now. Our commitment is to promoting locally and culturally relevant curricula, particularly science and math. AISES is the American Indian Science and Engineering Society, a very active national organization dedicated to promoting collegial support and mentoring for Native Americans involved in science and engineering. ANSES is the Alaska Native Science and Engineering Society, the Alaska adaptation of AISES. ANSES is funded and supported by AKRSI. Our goal is that locally culturally relevant science projects and fairs will continue long after our funding has expired.

 

 

Why We Have Locally Relevant Science Fairs 

Science fairs based on contemporary Western science have served well to establish a precedent in Alaska. However, the need has long been expressed, and is now fulfilled to have a science fair with projects based on locally and culturally relevant events. Elders are now recognized as the experts along with Western scientists. Students are encouraged to find projects from their village, from subsistence activities, and from their heritage. The richness of this effort has released enthusiasm like an artesian well. Many of the strict rules of state and national fairs have been replaced by village Elders' wisdom. What is safe? What is respectful? What is the appropriate way of approaching the subject? Elders answer these questions. Respect for people and animals runs deep in the inquiry process. Students have little trouble conforming to the values established by their regional Elders.

What is a Culturally or Locally Relevant Project?

Any project based on activities in the community, whether past or present is locally or culturally relevant. This is opposed to a project on lunar landings, dolphins, or alligators.

Cultural Standards Met by Science Fairs

Many cultural standards adopted by the State of Alaska Department of Education are being met when students are actively involved in developing a locally or culturally relevant science project.

A Brief History and a Look Ahead

Since 1996, AKRSI has sponsored local and regional fairs in five cultural regions of Alaska: Iñupiat, Athabascan, Aleut, Tlingit/Haida, and Yupik. After each of the regional fairs, the best projects went to our state fair, and the best of those went on to AISES Nationals in the Lower 48. The goal was to jumpstart each region so the events could continue on their own after AKRSI phased out.

In February, 1999 AKRSI sponsored the first ANSES State Fair in Birchwood, outside of Anchorage, gathering the best projects throughout the state. The next ANSES State Fair was held in Camp Carlquist on Mirror Lake by the town of Peter's Creek north of Anchorage in February 2000.

AKRSI is very grateful for the precedent AISES National has established, but feels that Alaskan differences are great enough that Alaska guidelines were needed. Therefore, students who go from the Alaska fairs to AISES National need to be prepared for different requirements.

Unlike AISES National, Alaska fairs had no lower age limit, nor are they limited to Native American students. Our Alaska projects are not sterile, but students are encouraged to display natural materials, make noise, smoke, smell, pop, and fizz (as long as they are safe and approved by a teacher and a village Elder.)

On the other hand, Alaska projects must reflect the guidelines of a culturally relevant school and curriculum. They should be rooted in the local lifestyle, traditional activities and cultural views.

AKRSI'S ROLE

Because of greatly reduced funding, AKRSI's future role in regional and the state fair are uncertain. Check with the AKRSI website, www.ankn.uaf.edu for current information. 

AISES National Science Fair

This event has been a great experience for students and is high on the student "benefit- per-buck" ratio. A student does not have to be a winner in our ANSES State Science Fair to attend AISES National. All school districts should budget to send top projects. AKRSI may or may not be able to help fund this travel.

Information about the AISES National Science Fair can best be obtained on the web, http://www.aises.org or through the AKRSI website, http://ankn.uaf.edu/anses/ science fairs. This contains a link to the AISES National website.

Timing of Fairs

In the past, regional fairs were between October and January. The State fair was the end of January during the Native Educator Conference. AISES Nationals is in March, with a early February deadline for registration.

The Western science-based Alaska State Science Fair is usually held in April.

WHO IS INVOLVED?

The Student

Any student enrolled in an Alaska school or distance education program is eligible.

Every effort should be made to accommodate handicapped individuals. 

The Project Review Group

This group includes:

a An adult sponsor, teacher, or local expert

a An Elder or Elders

The project review group must insure that the student's plan and efforts meet the cultural values of the region, is safe and educationally sound.

The Adult Sponsor

An adult sponsor may be a community member, teacher, parent, university professor, or scientist with whom the student is working. This individual should have close contact with the student during the course of the whole project.

The adult sponsor is ultimately responsible, not only for the health and safety of the student doing the project, but also for the humans or animals used as subjects.

The adult sponsor must be familiar with the regulations that govern potentially dangerous projects. This may include: thin ice, hypothermia, firemaking materials, boating and firearm safety as well as handling of chemicals, experimental techniques, research involving human or nonhuman animals, and animal tissues. The issues must be discussed with the student during planning.

Some experiments involve procedures or materials that are regulated by state and federal laws. If not thoroughly familiar with the regulations, the adult sponsor should ask for help from AKRSI staff. The adult sponsor is responsible for making sure the project is eligible for entry in the science fair. If the project is to go to AISES Nationals, the sponsor will have to scramble to meet their standards as well. At the same time, the adult sponsor should be certain the student does the major portion of the work. Enthusiastic parents often contribute more than their share of effort, putting other students' projects at a disadvantage. Help the student over humps. If necessary, do the dangerous parts, but the general rule for adults should be "Words, no hands."

Student - Elder/Teacher - Project 

The teacher is concerned with student safety and the expertise necessary to link the project to modern science. This individual fills in the gaps the adult sponsor and Elder might leave, whether in preparing the project for the fair, providing specific technical knowledge on the subject or suggesting new ideas that would broaden or deepen the project.

Elder

The Elder is the resource, the guide, the one who guarantees that the project aligns with local values and beliefs. The Elder provides stability.

The student should spend as much time as possible listening to the Elder or Elders. This link with the previous generations gives the student insight into where he/she has come from and where he/she is going. The Elder tells how the question or issue was handled in the past.

RULES, REGULATIONS & REQUIREMENTS

Reasons for Rules 

Students need to compete fairly in a safe environment.

No compromise for safety should be made. At the same time, the fair should not be a line-up of sterile posters and notebooks. If the village Elders, local experts, and teachers think a project is safe, it probably is.

Compliance with the local Native values (see Appendix) eliminates the need for most extraneous restrictions. If students clearly explain the project to the review people, and they agree that it is acceptable, then it is.

With large numbers of people as well as scientific displays and contraptions in the same closed space, there is opportunity for mishap during the fair. There should be enough rules to insure safety, yet enough freedom to show the essence of the project. If a student needs to go outside to demonstrate spear throwing to the judges, that should be part of his/her interview.

The main concern is that students have an enjoyable, safe science learning experience. Everything else is secondary. I often say, "We are the temporary stewards of other people's greatest treasures . . . their children." 

ANSES Social Rules

ANSES agrees with AISES National's strict behavior guidelines against the use of alcohol and controlled substances, and against verbal, physical or sexual abuse or improper touching. Violations of these standards should not be tolerated at any ANSES sponsored event. Immediate dismissal of a student violating these ANSES guidelines is most appropriate. These rules should be clearly stated and rigidly enforced in all ANSES activities.

Display and Safety Regulations Unacceptable for Display:

a Highly flammable or hazardous chemicals or materials.

a Poisons, drugs, controlled substances, HASMAT. Project materials should meet FAA requirements for transport. Don't assume! Inquire.

a Tanks that have contained combustible liquids or gases.

Display items requiring permission previous to the fair:

* Strong smelling items: fermented fish heads, beaver castor, mink glands, caribou skins soured to slip the hair, etc.

* Pressurized tanks that contain noncombustibles.

a Any apparatus producing temperatures that will cause physical burns or freezing.

a High voltage. Wiring, switches, and metal parts must have adequate insulation and must be inaccessible to others.

a Electrical connections. 110-volt AC circuits must be soldered or made with approved connectors. Connecting wires must use wire nuts and electrical tape. Cords must be UL approved.

a Bare wire and exposed knife switches may be used only in circuits of 12 volts or less; otherwise, standard enclosed switches are required.

a Any liquid that is acid or base, i.e., above or below ph 6.5-7.5

a Lasers.

a Projects that involve live animals or people.

Any display involving the above issues should get an okay from fair organizers.

Acceptable for Display . . . Cannot be Operated

a Projects with unshielded moving belts, pulleys, chains, and parts with tension or pinch points

a Any device requiring over 120 volts

Teachers and local Elders should set necessary further stipulations for display for the above projects in a local or regional fair.

Size of Project Space

A project may take up to half a table. Projects requiring more space than this should get permission previous to the fair.
(Permission should be granted if there is any way to do so.) 

Overall Requirements

Every student must complete the registration forms that simply ask: name, school, grade, name of project, category of project, name of chaperone contact number and email address of student and chaperone.

Each student or team in grades 9-12 should prepare a one page summary of the project for judges to review.

Each student or team should display all data taken during the project that validates the conclusion of the project. Weather-beaten field notes are fine.

Each student must have the Elders fill out the Local Values Checklist, and sign it (see Appendix).

If the student is using human subjects under 18, the student researchers must obtain written informed consent from all subjects and their parent or guardian. The consent form should clearly state all activities. Devise your own form based on your circumstances.

A student may improve on a project from a previous year, but the report from that year should accompany the second year's project so judges can see how much new work the student has done.

Team Projects

When there are too many students working on a project, some do not participate. Two is ideal. Three is maximum.

Each member of the team should be able to serve as spokesperson, be fully involved with the project, and be familiar with all aspects of the project.

The judges will assess if all presenters were actively participating in all aspects of the project. 

Categories

There are eight categories identified by ANSES:

In a small local fair, all categories might not be represented. In some fairs with fewer projects, we disregard the grade distinction in experiments. Judges take age into consideration when scoring.

A GOOD SCIENCE PROJECT SHOULD INCLUDE:

Elder Guidance 

The distinguishing feature of a project in an AKRSI fair is that the student has spent considerable time consulting with Elders in the community. This accomplishes many objectives. It identifies the Elders as valuable resources. It validates local knowledge. It links the student with his/her past. It teaches the application of local knowledge to modern science concepts. It creates bonds between the students and the Elders so other information can flow between the generations. It allows the teaching of local values along with local activities. It brings the school, community, and students together in a healthy fashion.

Project Summary

Projects submitted by students grades 9-12 should include a one page project summary so judges can get a quick overview of the intent and scope of the effort.

Consent forms

All consent forms that haven't been previously collected.

A Good Visual Display

A good visual display attracts and informs.

Interested spectators and judges easily assess the project and results obtained. The display should use clear and concise expressions. Headings should stand out, graphs, and diagrams should be clearly and correctly labeled.

A display board stands alone with three panels. It may be two-stories tall, but make sure it doesn't topple over onto other projects. 

The poster usually includes:

Identification

Name, grade, school, and type of project.

Title and Original Question

What question lurks in the student's mind to motivate the project?

Hypothesis

What is the student's "best guess" how this will turn out?

Materials Used

What materials were used? This gives judges an idea how the project was performed.

Data

What facts did the student find out? Include measurements, dates, and notes. The original data book with "field stains" should accompany the project.

Procedure

What steps did the student take to do the project?

Results and Conclusion

The conclusion might easily contradict the original hypothesis. This is perfectly good science.

Models, photographs, or drawings are often appropriate. The display board should be logically presented, easy to read, and eye-catching.

Handwritten materials don't compete well with computer-generated poster board materials.

Display as much of the project as possible. Clearly mark what can and cannot be touched, but if possible, allow people to feel the fur, touch fish skin boots, try the bow & drill firemaker, etc. Make the project as interactive as possible.

Judging Criteria 

The criteria by which Elders and Western science judges evaluate each project are different. Top winners satisfy both groups of judges.

Rubrics that have served well for years can be found in the Appendix.

Warning! Science Project vs. Library Project

Many students go the library or internet and do exhaustive hours of work, draw good poster boards, including graphs and visuals, and don't do well in the fairs. Those students don't realize the difference between a library project and a science project.

A science project gets the student involved doing something. The student tries several ways of accomplishing a task, or tries different weights, lengths, sizes, colors etc. in pursuit of an answer. The results should be measurable.

A student should go to the library or internet to broaden his/her understanding, get definitions, clarify concepts or find more examples. But the project should be based on the student's experience, not a vicarious description of someone else's efforts.

For that reason, models of "life on the moon," "save the dolphins," or "northern lights" generally don't score well, as there is little the student can interact with. The project review group needs to work with the student to turn this type of interest into a "do-able" project that will score well with both groups of judges. Example: One student was interested in forensics. Lacking a dead body to work on, we helped her develop a related project on ballistics and the rate of burn of different types of gunpowders.

ORGANIZING A LOCAL OR REGIONAL FAIR

Location 

Choose a town or village site that is economical and easy/safe to travel to/from. Be careful that no site feels left out, but take weather, safety, and amount of volunteer help into careful consideration. Typically, the gym of a local school or National Guard Armory are used. Gyms are loud, large and impersonal. Students are used to horsing around in the gym. The gym or armory might be used for displaying projects, and another smaller room for awards and more intimate exchanges. It is hard to hear Elders speak in a gym, even with a sound system.

Season/Date

This is a much-discussed topic:

Decide if you want the local or regional fair to lead up to other fairs. Obviously, your local fair should precede these fairs if you want to send winners.

Early Fair

Some people feel that an early winter fair is better because it draws from three seasons: the previous summer, fall and current winter. Camp experiences are fresh in students' minds. A later fair is usually limited to winter activities.

The quiet period from the end of November to the second week of December has become a favorite time for many local or regional fairs.

Many school districts are shifting to project-based curricula, and find that an early fair sets the stage for all projects throughout the school year.

Later Fair

Traditionally in Alaska, science fairs have been in April. Many teachers have this timing built into their schedules.

Sports

Science fairs don't compete well with sporting events. Find the basketball schedule and work around it!

Weather

Choose months when weather isn't too bad in your region. You don't want students weathered in or weathered out for long.

Preparing for the Event

To organize a local or regional fair, ask yourselves the following questions:

  • What rules guide the preparation and performance of a project?
  • What rules guide the display of a project?
  • What categories will the projects register under?
  • What are the criteria for judging?

You determine the rules for your own fair. Borrow from others, but create your own.

School principals need to know the financial expectations placed on their budgets. Get information out early in the school year before travel funds are committed to other activities. Far in advance, teachers and principles need:

  • Clearly stated rules, requirements and regulations.
  • Dates, times, and location.
  • Judges scoring guides.

Speakers and Elders need time to prepare. The public, including parents need to know in advance the hours the fair will be open to the public.

All judges need to know the dates, times, location, and what is expected of them. Give them the scoring guide far ahead of the fair so they can think about it. Spend time with Elder judges over a cup of coffee, casually informing them of the intent of the fair and what is expected of them. Give them time to think of questions. Western science judges are very familiar with such fairs. It is foreign territory for Elders.

Also consider:

  • Where will people sleep?
  • How many people are expected for meals?
  • Who will take care of transportation?
  • Do you have all contact numbers?
  • What will you do if weather is bad: cancel or postpone?

Typical Schedule

Morning

  • Students set up projects.
  • Students practice presentations among themselves. 30 minutes.
  • Students leave projects for 30-45 minutes. Judges look at all projects, getting an overview. This is very important for judges to get an idea "How good is good?" and for judging teams to agree among themselves.
  • Judging starts.

Afternoon

  • Judging continues.
  • Students leave, and judges confer, deciding on awards. This is a good time for team/peer building activities among students. See "Judging by Tables" on page 15.
  • Judges deliberate, choosing First, Second, Third, "Best of Show", and grand prizes.

Evening

There are two options in the typical schedule:

Option #1: (This makes a shorter evening)

  • After judges' deliberation, while all participants and the public are out of the room, blue, red and white ribbons are hung on all projects. Elders ribbons are on one side of the project, western science judges' ribbons on the other. Each project then gets two ribbons. Students and the public are excluded until the doors open after supper.

After supper:

  • Doors burst open.
  • Students and the public enter the fair site, looking at projects and associated ribbons hanging on projects.
  • Awards ceremony and Elder speeches. Ribbons are given for "Best of Show" and "Grand Prize."
  • "Grand Prize" and "Best of Show" ribbons are hung on projects, and all students stand by projects for pictures and questions from public for 20-30 minutes.

Option #2: (This makes a longer evening)

After supper:

  • Fair site is open to the public. At this time, there are no ribbons on projects.
  • During the awards ceremony, all blue, red, and white ribbons including "Best of Show" and "Grand Prize" are awarded.
  • Elders give speeches.

This method gives more public recognition to every student, but can be quite long if an effort is not made to move quickly through the program.

With both options, it is very important to have students display ribbons and stand beside projects after wards so everyone can make the connection between projects and awards. It is a good "photo moment." People tend to think the fair is over when awards are over, so announce that projects must be on display for another 20-30 minutes. 

Alternate Schedule

One alternative is having judging on one day and awards at a noon luncheon the next day. This gives judges time to deliberate into the evening. Confusion and hurt feelings have arisen from mistakes made while rushing judges. Perhaps small local fairs are best held on one day and larger fairs are more manageable if held on two days.

This alternate schedule allows all evening for tallying the scores and deciding on best of show among the judges. The typical schedule gets a bit frantic if there is debate between the Elders and western science judges. As the synthesis of both views is the crux of the whole effort, it should not be rushed, yet often is.

On the other hand, the alternate schedule keeps many parents from the noon awards ceremony, unless activities are planned for all day, and the awards are that night.

Organizing the event

The days of travel, particularly arrival, are often hectic. People arriving from other towns need contact numbers, location of lodging, schedules, and event locations all in a packet.

A designated driver on the day of arrival for the fair is a must. A cell phone for the driver is a tremendous help. Travelers should have the cell number. Getting people to planes to go home is much easier than gathering them on the first day.

Know where the extra tables, extension cords, and mops are kept. Know where the electrical breaker boxes are. Who has the keys on the weekend? What do you do in a physical emergency? How can parents call students if the school office is closed?

Administrators and janitors in the building must know what is going on and how their job will be impacted. Designate one person to take memorable pictures or video.

If students and teachers do not know each other, it is good to have an ice-breaking activity that gets people acquainted right away. 

Projects

Assign a number to each project. All projects should be clearly labeled as to category and assigned a project number. Put a line for project number on the upper left of the scoring sheet. (Reasons for this will follow.)

Identifying

Each project should have a one-word identifier like "nets", "lamps", or "medicine." Put this on the top of the scoring sheet.

What categories will be established? If there are few projects, they might be grouped differently. In regional fairs we use the following categories:

  • Individual collection
  • Individual demonstration
  • Individual experiment
  • Group collection
  • Team demonstration
  • Team experiment

The group collection could be a whole lower elementary class.

Individual

Collection

Demonstration

Experiment K-8

Experiment 9-12

Group

Collection

Demonstration

Experiment K-8

Experiment 9-12

We limit team projects to three participants. Sometimes we divide experiments by grade, 5-8 and 9-12 if there are enough projects, but the young folks often do quite well against the upper grades.

Online registration works wonderfully! Weather and poor postal service don't interfere with deadlines. Put your fair on the school district website, with rules, regulations, and all information only a click away. Contact the AKRSI webmaster, fyankn@uaf.edu for help in this regard.

CRITICAL SCIENCE FAIR DATES PEOPLE NEED TO KNOW

Dates before the Fair

a Permission for projects that require approval for performance of display.

a Participant registration needs to be received or postmarked by:____________________

Dates and times at the Fair

a Check-in/setup

a Opening ceremony

a Judging schedule. All students must be present at their own exhibit for questioning by the judges.

a All group activities.

a Exhibits open to the public. This is important to get public support in the future.

a Dinner and awards ceremony

a Dismiss, take-down/cleanup

JUDGING

Finding Judges 

Quality judging is critically important so the students feel that their efforts have been fairly evaluated.

Western science judges can be found in government agencies and local industry. Some don't relate well to students. Casually interview them before inviting them to judge. The ability to understand students and respond with compassion are more important than scientific expertise. We aren't delving into subatomic particles. Try to get a balance among judges. Biologists far outnumber earth and physical science people in Alaska.

Have several home visits with Elders before the fair to insure that they understand what is expected of them. It is best to have Elders from the community and cultural region, as the values and details of the lifestyle are unique from region to region. Elders don't always enjoy good health. Schedule a few backups in case some cannot attend.

Consider a stipend for both sets of judges, or at least a gift of appreciation. 

Working with Elders

Elder judges contribute a priceless dimension to the fair. Their presence gives honor and value to all that we do.

However, since Elders have little or no experience with science fairs, there are a few precautions that go a long way towards a successful fair. Asking them to judge a fair without instruction is like dropping a teacher blindfolded on the tundra. 

Avoiding problems

Try not to pick an Elder with a grandchild in the fair. Rumblings may follow.

Helper

Appoint someone who is familiar with science fairs to work with the Elders. Give them an idea of what to expect ahead of time. Tell them what the fair is for, how it will be run, why they are there and what is expected of them.

Teams

Put the Elders in teams of two to three. Each group should include someone who speaks English and is more literate. If there are many projects, there might be two or three teams of Elders. Split husbands and wives into different teams.

Scoring

The Elder scoring guide (see Appendix) identifies the judging criteria. Practice and demonstrate on a simulated project before they go out and evaluate all the projects. Put a copy of the local values on the back of your Elder scoring rubric. (See Appendix for all values.) During the interview, Elders score each criteria on a scale of 1-5 (or 1-10 as you wish.)

Elders review the projects for their alignment with traditional Native values of that region and for their contribution to the students' village/community.

  • How well did the student maintain Native values?
  • Is the project important to Native/local culture, village, and community?
  • Is the project of high quality, showing hard work?
  • Has the student drawn upon Elders and local experts, involving the community in the research?

Elders need to understand which end of the scale signifies "best" and which end signifies "not-so-good" and what a 5 or an 8 might mean. This is best done on a relaxed day before the fair.

Timing

Elders need a sense of how much time to spend on each project. One uninformed Elder spent 45 minutes teaching one student how to set snares. No one told him what a science fair was or what was expected of him.

Idea vs. work done

Elders need to understand the difference between a good idea and a project well done. Uninformed Elders have overvalued a project with an important subject although the student's work was of lower quality.

Chairs

Have chairs for Elders to use during theinterview. The person working with the Elders can move the chairs from project to project. Be certain all Elders can see and hear.

Elders' hearing must be adequate to understand the students in a large room with many noises. 

Ribbons

Scoring is always hard because Elders want to encourage everyone and discourage no one. They must understand that students put different amounts of effort and thought into projects, and their job as elders is to evaluate that effort.

Blue, red and white ribbons seldom have meaning to them. They relate to "good," "better," "best." 

After Visiting All Projects

Give Elders a break when the score sheets are handed in.

While they are on break, on each Elder score sheet, add the scores for each of the criteria and put the total on the top right of that scoring sheet. Don't confuse this number with project numbers! (Which should be on the top left.)

There should be a score sheet for each Elder that evaluated each project. Staple them together, project #23 with #23, #16 with #16, etc. This is where you discover whether all projects were judged or not. Make sure there are scoring sheets for every project! We have dismissed students before and found that all projects weren't judged.

Average the Elders' scores for each project. You can use the totals for each project, but if one judging team had three members and another two, scores will be off. Averaging overcomes that problem. Write the average on the top sheet.

Elders Scoring

Arrange the papers in ascending or descending order.

Arrange the papers in ascending or descending order.

Elders return.

Talk about the way the totals have come out. Does everyone think this is a fair rating for each project? At this point, a one word descriptor of each project is most helpful - nets, fur, moss, knives etc.

Take time on this part. Experience says elders get done before the Western science judges anyway.

Go look at projects again. Discuss the merits of each. The averaged number scores are a guide. Dialogue and consensus can overturn numbers. Do the Elders want to reevaluate a project now that the big picture is clearer? Refer to projects by name, "nets," "lamps," "deadfalls." Project numbers at this point are confusing.

Don't rush this part. Give Elders time. You might even have a meal at this point, giving them time for thought and personal conversation.

Once there is consensus that the projects are in ascending/descending order, find the breaks in the scores. There is usually a large gap between the totals, like:

18, 18, 19, 20 . . .

27, 27, 27, 28, 29, 29, 30 . . .

36, 36, 40

These are obvious natural breaks between the blue, red, and white ribbons and the levels of performance. There is no given percentage of projects that must be given each color. Let the breaks and quality of projects determine the ribbons.

Confer with Elders. Do they want to change their minds about any projects now that they have talked with each other?

WESTERN SCIENCE JUDGES' SCORING

Western science judges are acutely aware of how to judge a science fair, as they have personally participated in so many. Western science judges and Elders tally their scores separately. In the past, judges have stapled all score sheets for a given project together, averaged the scores and placed that number in the upper right corner of the top score sheet in a bright color. When that is done, they grouped the projects in three ranges: high, middle, and low. The break between the three groups is usually obvious.

The high range gets a blue ribbon, middle range a red ribbon, and low range gets a white ribbon.

Important! Because the number of ribbons required for each group is not known ahead of time, it is good to have an abundant surplus of ribbons of all colors. They are cheap and reusable. Remember, there are two sets of judges, so double your supply. 

Two Ribbons

Each project gets two ribbons, one from the Western science judges, and one from the Elders. It is possible for a project to get one blue and one white ribbon.

Western scientist Scoring Criteria

Teacher/scientists evaluate in a demonstration or experiment:

  • How well a student explained and understand the scientific principles involved (demonstration) or How well the student followed the scientific method? (experiment)
  • Detail and accuracy of data
  • Creativity and originality
  • Presentation
  • Conclusions
  • Appearance
  • Use of materials

The collection shows

  • Quality and variety
  • Creativity
  • Good presentation
  • Good data. Where and when items were discovered.

Overall Scoring

Judges look for well-planned work. They look at how significant the project is in its field and to the village community. They look for thoroughness.

Judges respond favorably to students who can speak freely and confidently about their research. They are not interested in memorized speeches. They simply want to talk with students to see if there is a good grasp of the project from start to finish. Besides asking the obvious questions, judges often ask questions outside the normal scope to test insight into research such as "Why did you pick this project?" and "What would be your next step?"

Do not be locked into numbers. Numbers are only a guide. Talk and interact when deciding on a final ribbon. 

Best of show

For the ribbons that identify "Best of Show" and "Grand Prize" Western science judges and Elders should be in agreement. Sometimes this takes strong negotiating and other times it is quickly unanimous. The discussion is always healthy, as Elders get to hear what the scientists value, and the scientists better understand the Elders' viewpoint. There is no fixed number of projects in this upper category. Have extra awards on hand, but don't feel compelled to give them if the quality isn't there. Awards should be meaningful.

When the Western science and Elder judges have a hard time coming to agreement there are two ways to help work out the differences.

  1. Revisit the projects. The judges defend their choices to the others, giving the strong points of the projects. Do this for all the contenders.
  2. Usually the two teams of judges can agree on one or two projects. If there is ultimate impasse, then the Elders can pick one "Grand Prize" and the Western science judges another. This solution should be a last resort as it doesn't involve consensus.

Helpful Hints

Judge by Tables

The judging time can get quite long for students as they wait for judges to come to their project.

Have the judges interview one row of tables at a time, and tell the students in the next row of tables they are "on deck" (not in the fair room, but "no wandering.") Students from rows 3 & 4 might do activities. As soon as the first row of tables has been judged, those students are dismissed and the second row of students come into the fair site to be judged. The students whose projects are on the third row are now "on deck." All other students can be occupied with board games, or other organized activities. This keeps students from having to stand by their projects for three hours until the last projects are judged.

Judge by Tables

It while it might help to organize tables by category: experiments, demonstrations, and collections, students like to set up next to their school or friends.

Practice

After the students have setup their projects, but before the judges come to interview them, allow the students to practice on each other. This helps kill "butterflies."

Divide the students into two groups, the presenters and the interviewers. Give each a piece of paper with 1 or 2 on it. Counting off 1-2-1-2 doesn't work!

Presenters stand by their projects and interviewers position themselves in front of individual projects.

At a signal, the presenters share their project with the interviewers for 3-5 minutes, when the time is up, the interviewers rotate to another project. After this is done several times, presenters and interviewers switch positions.

The rotating begins again. This gives each student the opportunity to share his/her project to peers several times before talking to the judges. 

Forms

Even if students have registered through the web, they should sign and have signed behavior, media, cultural values, and liability forms similar to those in the appendix.

Student Absent

Upon occasion, schools have sent projects without the students. Those projects seldom win high honors, but their presence contributes to the fair.

We have yet to explore the possibility of sending a project from a remote village with a video of the student being interviewed by local judges. This doesn't allow the student the opportunity to learn from other projects in the fair, nor does it allow the student the opportunity to present the project under the pressure of unfamiliar judges, but it would be better than not participating at all. It would at least allow the science fair judges the opportunity to watch and listen as the student responds to questions by other adults.

Interaction

If the fair is in a larger city, groups tend to split off to go to movies or malls. Teachers and school districts have expressed the desire that fairs be more educational, so we have tried to hold them in more remote locations. Peer building and science are more important than shopping.

Those who want to shop can come earlier or leave later than the others.

Teachers and chaperones have felt the need for more meaningful interaction among the students, developing long-term, regionwide or statewide, peer relationships. The relationships will serve as a support system in college and later endeavors. Field trips, other large group activities, as well as sharing the same housing and transportation enhance this. During the State Fair, we have hired professionals to do team/peer building activities.

Group ice breakers are the quickest way to initiate interaction among people. Native Elders like students to know how to introduce themselves in a group, giving their name, Native name, name of their parents and village.

CONCLUSION

Locally relevant science fairs depart from those of the past in several ways. They are based on local knowledge using local Elders as authorities. The Western science model is followed, but traditional knowledge and values are acknowledged.

Many projects evolve from summer science/culture camps, linking camps to the classroom. Community involvement has been extremely high. Years of experience across the state of Alaska have laid a solid foundation. The enthusiasm of the students, strength of the Elders, and support of the communities assure that culturally/locally relevant projects will long outlive AKRSI.


 

Science Fairs

Appendix

LIABILITY FOR EXHIBITS

Every effort will be made to protect your exhibit. However, since the Science Fair Exhibition will be open to the public, the _____________________ ANSES Science Fair cannot and will not accept any liability or responsibility of any nature for any theft of, or loss or damage to, any exhibit or any other property of any exhibitor. Accordingly, it is recommended that each exhibitor take product precautions to prevent any theft, loss or damage to his/her exhibit and/or other property. Each exhibitor should secure and guard his/her exhibit and/or other property at all times during the exhibition, and remove all valuable components, especially those which are easily portable, when the exhibit and/or other property is left unguarded by the exhibitor.

I have read the above paragraph, and understand and accept that the _________________________ ANSES Science Fair cannot and will not accept any liability or responsibility for theft or damage to any exhibit.

 

__________________________________________________________

Single entry participant/Team member #1

Date

 

__________________________________________________________

Parent/legal guardian signature

Date

 

__________________________________________________________

Team member #2

Date

 

__________________________________________________________

Parent/Legal guardian signature

Date

 

__________________________________________________________

Team member #3

Date

 

__________________________________________________________

Parent/Legal guardian signature

Date

 

__________________________________________________________

Adult sponsor

Date


 

MEDIA PERMISSION

 

 

The _____________________ ANSES Science Fair is a significant event and your presence there is newsworthy. The organization or businesses sponsoring awards at the fair may want to publicize their involvement in such an important science competition by using photographs or information about you. Your cooperation may make it possible for other promising young students to get involved in science.

You have my permission to use appropriate information about me for publicity purposes. This includes any photographs, videos, or likeness(es) that may be used by AISES, the First Interior Alaska AISES Science Fair, Alaska Native Knowledge Network, and/or Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative, or the sponsors for the purposes of illustrations, advertising or publication in any manner. I also consent to the use of my name in connection therewith.

 

__________________________________________________________

Single entry participant/Team member #1

Date

 

__________________________________________________________

Parent/legal guardian signature

Date

 

__________________________________________________________

Team member #2

Date

 

__________________________________________________________

Parent/Legal guardian signature

Date

 

__________________________________________________________

Team member #3

Date

 

__________________________________________________________

Parent/Legal guardian signature

Date

 

__________________________________________________________

Adult sponsor

Date


CONDUCT CODE

Whenever there is a meeting or gathering under the name of AISES or ANSES the following conduct code is maintained. Having a safe environment for students and adults to learn and develop into productive community members is highly cherished by ANSES leadership and membership. Therefore we request that you read over carefully the following and sign a personal commitment to this code.

During the entire time of the Science Fair, as well as during my travel to and from the fair:

  1. I will not use or abuse any alcoholic beverages, nor drugs;
  2. I will not engage in any verbal or physical abuse of any human being.
  3. I will not engage in any sexual harassment nor inappropriate touching. These values are important to me and I am proud to sign this document, to confirm my commitment to them.
 

__________________________________________________________

Participant

Date

 

__________________________________________________________

Parent/legal guardian signature

Date

! If your project is a team project, make one copy of this conduct code for each team participant. Each participant along with his/her parent or legal guardian must carefully read this conduct code and sign the code, and send or bring the hard copy to fair organizers. No student will be admitted to the fair who has not signed a copy of the conduct code.


SAMPLE FAIR INFORMATION

Date of Fair 

Location of Fair

City State

Host Hotel

For more information contact:

Name of contact

Email

Phone:

Fax

Business/School

Address

City / State / Zip


SAMPLE: LETTER OF INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE

Dear Teachers and Students:

We would like to invite you and your students to the Annual Interior Alaska AISES Science Fair. The fair will be held in the gymnasium at the Howard Luke Academy, Fairbanks, Alaska. The opening ceremony is at 6:00 PM. Thursday, November 20, 1997.

Preregistration deadline is Friday, November 14. Students will set up their projects anytime between 8 AM and 5 PM., November 20, 1997

Any student of the eleven rural Interior school districts in grades 5-12 is eligible to participate in the First Annual Alaska Interior AISES Science Fair (none of whom has reached age 21 on or before November 1 preceding the fair.) All students K-4 are invited to send in their project for display on November 20.

Students are invited to wear traditional dress at the fair and at the awards dinner.

All Grades:

Projects must adhere to display and safety regulations

Grades 9-12

Every student in grades 9-12 must submit a copy of their research plan with their registration form.

All grades

Fill out and sign the registration form.

Students can select a project in any one of the categories listed. There will be 1st, 2nd, and 3rd place awards in each of these categories. Elders will select 1st, 2nd, and 3rd place winners. All students will receive a participation certificate. In addition, the overall top X projects will win an expense paid trip to XXX on April XXX where they will enter their project in the AISES National Annual Science Fair.

All registration forms and research plans will be reviewed by a committee with teacher, scientists, and Elders associated with the Alaska Native Knowledge Network. We will contact you if there is any problems or questions about your project.

Participants and chaperones are responsible for their own travel, room, and meals while at the science fair. _____________________ can assist you with hotel and air travel arrangements. Please contact her at (907) XXX-XXXX.

Please read the enclosed information and guidelines carefully. If you have any questions, please contact me (907) XXX-XXXX for assistance. We look forward to seeing you in Fairbanks.

Sincerely,

 

__________________________
AISES Science Fair Coordinator

 


SAMPLE AGENDA

Tentative Agenda, November 20-22, 1997 

Location: All activities Will take place at the Howard Luke Academy Gym.

Thursday, November 20

Noon-6 PM

Judges' registration/check-in

Noon-8:30 PM

Participant check-in

Noon-8:30 PM

Project setup

6 PM

All check-in tables closed

6 :30-7:30 PM

Opening ceremony

7:30-8:30 PM

Athabascan dance and reception

7: 30-8:30 PM

Science fair committee walk through of exhibits

 

Friday, November 21

6:45-9 AM

Judges' registration/check-in/briefing

9:30 AM-1 PM

Grades 9-12 judging with student participants only

9:30 AM-1 PM

Grades 5-8 van tours

1 PM-2 PM

Lunch break on your own.

2 PM-5 PM

K-8 judging with students participants only.

2 PM-5 PM

9-12 van tours

6 PM-8 PM

Projects open to the public

8 PM-9 PM

Participants take down projects

Saturday, November 22,1997

1 PM-4 PM

Dinner and awards ceremony
Dinner ticket for non-project participants
$10.00 per person (over 18)


SAMPLE PROJECT REGISTRATION FORM, page 1

DEADLINE: Entries must be postmarked no later than November 13, 1997

To participate you must:

  1. Submit this registration form by November 13, 1997 (entries must be postmarked no later than November 13, 1997).
  2. Include a copy of your research plan and abstract.
  3. Submit three copies of the checklist for adult sponsor, a teacher/expert in the field, and an Elder with their signatures~
  4. Complete all information on this registration form.
  5. Let organizers know if the student has a handicap and what accommodations are necessary to include the student.

Project Information

Type of Project:

c Collection

c Demonstration

Experiment Category Code_________________ Grade Level _________________

c Individual Project

c Team Project

Title of Project: (limit to ten words or fewer)



Do you require an electrical outlet? cYES c NO 

School Information

School name __________________________________________________________

Phone ___________________________ Fax ________________________________

Address _____________________________________________________________

City/Village __________________________________________________________

State ____________________________ Zip ________________________________

Email (if possible) _____________________________________________________

Chaperone _______________________ Phone ______________________________

Address _____________________________________________________________

City/Village __________________________________________________________

State ____________________________ Zip ________________________________

 


SAMPLE PROJECT REGISTRATION FORM, page 2

Single Entry Participant or #1 Team Member

Name ________________________________ Age ________________________________

Nickname ____________________________ Grade _______________________________

Birthdate _____________________________ Gender ______________________________

Social Security # ____________________________________________________________

Tribal affiliation ____________________________________________________________

Address __________________________________________________________________

City/Village _______________________________________________________________

State ____________ Zip ____________ Home Phone _____________________________

 

#2 Team Member

Name ________________________________ Age ________________________________

Nickname ____________________________ Grade _______________________________

Birthdate _____________________________ Gender ______________________________

Social Security # ____________________________________________________________

Tribal affiliation ____________________________________________________________

Address __________________________________________________________________

City/Village _______________________________________________________________

State ____________ Zip ____________ Home Phone _____________________________

 

#3 Team Member

Name ________________________________ Age ________________________________

Nickname ____________________________ Grade _______________________________

Birthdate _____________________________ Gender ______________________________

Social Security # ____________________________________________________________

Tribal affiliation ____________________________________________________________

Address __________________________________________________________________

City/Village _______________________________________________________________

State ____________ Zip ____________ Home Phone _____________________________  

 

Committee Schedule:

  1. Before (date) the science review committee will review and approve experimental procedures of projects that require prior permission to make sure they comply with the Athabascan values and scientific method.
  2. On November 20 the science review committee will review the project displays of the same projects to make sure the students followed their research plan and the Athabascan values.

 


CHECKLIST FOR ADULT SPONSOR,

Science Teacher/Expert in the Field and Elder

Student Name ___________________________ Grade ______________

I have reviewed and signed the research plan. cYES c NO 

The student and parent/guardian have signed the research plan. c YES cNO 

SA = Strongly Agree

A = Agree

N = Neither agree nor disagree (or does not apply)

D = Disagree

SD = Strongly Disagree

In your opinion this project reflects or maintains the following values:
(circle the letters that most closely fits your opinion)

Self-Sufficiency

SA
A
N
D
SD

Hard Work

SA
A
N
D
SD

Caring

SA
A
N
D
SD

Respect For Others

SA
A
N
D
SD

Village Cooperation

SA
A
N
D
SD

Responsibility to Village

SA
A
N
D
SD

Family Relations

SA
A
N
D
SD

Respect for Elders

SA
A
N
D
SD

Respect for Knowledge and Wisdom From Life Experiences

SA
A
N
D
SD

Respect for the Land and nature

SA
A
N
D
SD

Practicing Native Traditions

SA
A
N
D
SD

________________________________________________________________________

Signature

Role

Date

The Alaska AISES Science Fair will support and endorse the local Native values during the fair. The Elder judges will evaluate projects on their ability to maintain local Native values.


SCORING RUBRIC: DEMONSTRATION
ANSES SCIENCE FAIR

Project Number _____________ Team / Individual (circle)

Student(s) Name(s) __________________________ Total Score ____________

__________________________________________

Name of Project_____________________________

Demonstration

The student has done a demonstration, but has not connected the process to science. There isn't a good understanding of the "how and why" of the subject.

The student understands the project and has made some connection to the scientific principles involved.

The student has identified the science principles involved in the demonstration. He/she has shown clear and thorough knowledge of how and why the demonstration operates.

Data

Data is somewhat disorganized. Difficult for reader to understand the results. Data was collected, but not enough for conclusive results.

The data is organized and tells the reader what happened. Enough data was collected to make adequate conclusions.

The data is overtly organized and displayed in several ways including graphs and charts. There was enough data for conclusive results.

Creativity & Originality

This project has been done before, and shows no deviation from the past.

This project might have been done before, but shows insightful adaptations with original approaches.

The project combines western and traditional science in a fresh way. The questions asked, methods used and conclusions drawn are freshly insightful.

Presentation

Speech is too soft. Presenter lacks confidence, knowledge of subject, and enthusiasm.

Speech, confidence, knowledge, and enthusiasm are adequate.

Speech, confidence, knowledge, and enthusiasm are inspirational.

Conclusions

No connection is made between the question, hypothesis & data collection. A vague reference is made as to how this project could be improved.

Conclusions are clearly stated. An adequate description is made as to how this project could be improved.

The student has made insightful connections between the question, hypothesis, and data collection.

Appearance

More work is needed to make the display neat.

The information is displayed clearly and neatly.

The project commands attention, is extremely neat and easy to read.

Use of Materials

Materials used were not appropriate and/or safe.

Materials were used appropriately.

Materials were used appropriately and creatively.



SCORING RUBRIC: EXPERIMENT
ANSES SCIENCE FAIR

Project Number _____________ Team / Individual (circle)

Student(s) Name(s) __________________________ Total Score ____________

__________________________________________

Name of Project_____________________________

Scientific Process

A question was asked, but not well pursued. This is more of a library project than a hands-on science project.

Clear hypothesis, data gathering, and performance of experiment or observation. The project requires hands-on activity, organized thinking, and good observation skills.

Exceptionally well done with insightful performance and conclusions. The student was immersed in the project, trying several methods, even unsuccessful ones. The student thoroughly explored the original question.

Data

Data is somewhat disorganized. Difficult for reader to understand the results. Data was collected, but not enough for conclusive results.

The data is organized and tells the reader what happened. Enough data was collected to make adequate conclusions.

The data is overtly organized and displayed in several ways including graphs and charts. There was enough data for conclusive results.

Creativity & Originality

This project has been done before, and shows no deviation from the past.

This project might have been done before, but shows insightful adaptations with original approaches.

The project combines western and traditional science in a fresh way. The questions asked, methods used and conclusions drawn are freshly insightful.

Presentation

Speech is too soft. Presenter lacks confidence, knowledge of subject, and enthusiasm.

Speech, confidence, knowledge, and enthusiasm are adequate.

Speech, confidence, knowledge, and enthusiasm are inspirational.

Conclusions

No connection is made between the question, hypothesis & data collection. A vague reference is made as to how this project could be improved.

Conclusions are clearly stated. An adequate description is made as to how this project could be improved.

The student has made insightful connections between the question, hypothesis, and data collection.

Appearance

More work is needed to make the display neat.

The information is displayed clearly and neatly.


The project commands attention, is extremely neat and easy to read.

Use of Materials

Materials used were not appropriate and/or safe.

Materials were used appropriately.


Materials were used appropriately and creatively.

 


SCORING RUBRIC: COLLECTION
ANSES SCIENCE FAIR

Project Number _____________ Team / Individual (circle)

Student(s) Name(s) __________________________ Total Score ____________

__________________________________________

Name of Project_____________________________

Quality/Variety

The collection shows interest but there could have been many more samples. Some samples are of poor quality.

Most local samples have been collected. The samples are of good quality.

The collection is thorough. The local possibilities have been ehausted. The samples are of high quality with all sizes, colors, types and shapes possible.

Creativity &Originality

The collection shows little original thought.

There is evidence of creative thought in the gathering and presentation of the collection.

There is clear evidence of creative thought and ingenuity.

Presentation

Speech is too soft. There is little enthusiasm or interest.

The display is not organized.

Speech is loud, clear and thoughts are orderly.

The display is organized and understandable.

The presentation is loud, clear and orderly, given with enthusiasm. The display is clear, attractive and easy to understand.

Data

There is no data about where and when the samples were taken.

There is some data indicating where an when the samples were collected.

The data of where and when the collection was made is very understandable.


SCORING RUBRIC: COLLECTION
ANSES SCIENCE FAIR

Project Number _____________ Team / Individual (circle)

Student(s) Name(s) __________________________ Total Score ____________

__________________________________________

Name of Project_____________________________

Quality/Variety

The collection shows interest but there could have been many more samples. Some samples are of poor quality.

Most local samples have been collected. The samples are of good quality.

The collection is thorough. The local possibilities have been ehausted. The samples are of high quality with all sizes, colors, types and shapes possible.

Creativity &Originality

The collection shows little original thought.

There is evidence of creative thought in the gathering and presentation of the collection.

There is clear evidence of creative thought and ingenuity.

Presentation

Speech is too soft. There is little enthusiasm or interest.

The display is not organized.

Speech is loud, clear and thoughts are orderly.

The display is organized and understandable.

The presentation is loud, clear and orderly, given with enthusiasm. The display is clear, attractive and easy to understand.

Data

There is no data about where and when the samples were taken.

There is some data indicating where an when the samples were collected.

The data of where and when the collection was made is very understandable.


 

ANSES STATE SCIENCE FAIR
ELDERS SCORING RUBRIC

Project Number _____________ Team / Individual (circle)

Student(s) Name(s) __________________________ Total Score ____________

__________________________________________

Name of Project_____________________________

Cultural Values

The presentation by the students and display of his/her project maintains the cultural values of his/her area.

Needs more work

1

Good

3

Excellent

5

Quality Project

The student's work is well done. The project is organized and attractive. It shows good thought. The presentation is clear and confident. The discovery process is evident as used in village life.

Needs more work

1

Good

3

Excellent

5

Importance

The project is a study of something that is important to the land, village and community.

Needs more work

1

Good

3

Excellent

5

Community Resources

There is clear evidence that the student consulted with one or more community Elders, local experts and other cultural resources.

Needs more work

1

Good

3

Excellent

5

 

ALASKA NATIVE VALUES

Kodiak Alutiiq Values

  • Our Elders
  • Our heritage language
  • Family and the kinship of our ancestors and living relatives
  • Ties to our homeland
  • A subsistence lifestyle, respectful of, and sustained by the natural world
  • Traditional arts, skills, and ingenuity
  • Faith and a spiritual life, from ancestral beliefs to the diverse faiths of today
  • Sharing: we welcome everyone
  • Sense of humor
  • Learning by doing, observing, and listening
  • Stewardship of the animals, land, sky, and waters
  • Trust
  • Our people: we are responsible for each other and ourselves.
  • Respect for self, others, and our environment is inherent in all of these values.

Yup'ik Values 

  • Love for children
  • Respect for others
  • Sharing
  • Humility
  • Hard work
  • Spirituality
  • Cooperation
  • Family roles
  • Knowledge of family tree
  • Knowledge of language
  • Hunter success
  • Domestic skills
  • Avoid conflict
  • Humor
  • Respect For nature
  • Respect For land

Athabascan Values

  • Self-sufficiency and hard work
  • Care and provision for the family
  • Family relations and unity
  • Love for children
  • Village cooperation and responsibility to village
  • Humor
  • Honesty and fairness
  • Sharing and caring
  • Respect for Elders and others
  • Respect for knowledge & wisdom from life experiences
  • Respect for the land and nature
  • Practice of Native traditions
  • Honoring ancestors
  • Spirituality

Tlingit Values

  • Respect for self, and others, including Elders.
  • Remember our Native traditions, our families, sharing, loyalty, pride, and loving children
  • Responsibility
  • Truth and wise use of words
  • Care of subsistence areas, care of property
  • Reverence: "We have one great word in our culture: haa shageinyaa. This was a Great Spirit above us, and today we have translated that reverence to God."
  • Sense of humility
  • Care of human body
  • Dignity; the Tlingit word for dignity is yan gaa duuneek.
  • Peace; peace with the family, peace with the neighbors, peace with the others, and peace with the world of Nature

Iñupiat Ilitquasiat Values 

  • Knowledge of Language
  • Sharing
  • Respect for Others
  • Cooperation
  • Respect for Elders
  • Love for Children
  • Hard Work
  • Knowledge of Family Tree
  • Avoidance of Conflict
  • Respect for Nature
  • Spirituality
  • Humor
  • Family Roles
  • Hunter Success
  • Domestic Skills
  • Humility
  • Responsibility to Tribe

Book Cover

© 2004 Alaska Native Knowledge Network. All rights reserved.

A partner with the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0086194. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Contents

Camps as an Environment for Science & Culture

Culturally Relevant Science Fairs

Experiments

 

 
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Fax (907) 474.1957
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Last modified April 12, 2011