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Native Pathways to Education
Alaska Native Cultural Resources
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Indigenous Education Worldwide

Yup'ik RavenMarshall Cultural Atlas

This collection of student work is from Frank Keim's classes. He has wanted to share these works for others to use as an example of Culturally-based curriculum and documentation. These documents have been OCR-scanned. These are available for educational use only.






A Brief Historical Sketch of Hooper Bay

Hooper Bay is located twenty miles south of Cape Romanzoff and approximately twenty-five miles south of Scammon Bay. It is on the coast of the Bering Sea on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta. The present town is separated into two sections. The old townsite is located on two gently rolling hills. The newer section is located on slightly lower land a quarter mile southwest of the older section toward the airport. Hooper Bay's first name was "Askinuk" which refers to the mountainous area between Hooper Bay and Scammon Bay.

The present Yup'ik name is Naparyarmiut since it is located on the slough called Naparyaraq which drains out to the body of water called Hooper Bay. The name, Hooper Bay, came to be used to describe the town when the U.S. Post Office was established here in 1934.

1878 --

Hooper Bay ("Askinuk") site first reported in December of this year b~ Edward W. Nelson of the U.S. Signal Service.

1880 --

Population, 175.

1890 --

Census records a population of 138 residing in 14 dwellings.

1906 --

Diptheria epidemic sweeps the coast killing most of the people in the area.

1906 --

Alaska Native Allotment Act passed by U.S. Congress.

1909 --

First log cabin B.I.A. school built.

1919 --

Influenza epidemic, again wiping out much of the population.

1920's --

USS. Boxer brought teachers, supplies, doctors, and nurses to Bering coastal villages.

1924 --

Olaus Murie, Herbert Brandt (both famous ornithologists), visit Hooper Bay to study wildlife here.

1927 --

Old Catholic church built.

1928- 34 --

Hooper Bay serves as headquarters for the Jesuit Missions.

1929 --

Old Protestant church (Covenant) built. First airplane visits Hooper Bay.

1931 --

Little Flower of the Snow Sisters Order established here.

1934 --

Hooper Bay Post Office established.

1938 --

Traditional Village Council established

Late 1930's --

Reindeer introduced into Hooper Bay area.

1939 --

Population, 297.

1941 --

B.I.A. School closed during War years

1946 --

B.I.A. School reopened.

1947 --

Native Store established.

Late 1940's --

Reindeer moved out of Hooper Bay area (north to St. Michael's)

1950 --

Population, 307.

1954 --

Airport constructed.

1958 --

National Guard armory built.

1960 --

Population, 460.

1963 --

Present K-8th grade elementary school built by BIA.

1965 --

U.S. Public Health Service clinic constructed, and three health aides trained by P.H.S. to operate it.

1965 --

Headstart Program established by RurAlcap.

1966 --

Hooper Bay incorporated as a Second Class City with a City Council. Village Council stops functioning because of a misunderstanding of its purpose.


-- Alaska Village Electric Cooperative begins service here in December.

-- Tomaganuk's Store established.


-- Wien Airlines begins regular flight service to Hooper Bay.


-- Population, 490.

-- Alaska State Housing Authority builds 20 homes here.


-- Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act passed by U.S. Congress on Dec. 18.

-- Jay's Flying Service begins.


-- Water well in old part of town constructed.


-- Hooper Bay Traditional Council reestablished.


-- Santa Fe Flying Service replaces Jay's Flying Service.


-- Public Safety building and Magistrate's Office established.

-- Present 9-12 high school constructed by the B.I.A. and turned over to Lower Yukon School District R.E.A.A. in December.

-- Federal Townsite Patent of 365.27 acres issued to Hooper Bay by B.L.M. Trustee on Dec. 15.

-- Green's Theater begins operation.

-- Indian Self-Determination Act passed by U.S. Congress.


-- A.V.C.P. Housing Authority constructs 31 homes.


-- Hill's and Joe's store begins operation.

-- A few people from Hooper Bay begin work on the Trans Alaska Pipeline.


-- New Catholic Church constructed. 

-- Phillip Naneng's candy store constructed.


-- Sea Lion retail store opens.

-- Sea Lion Corporation's Recreation Center constructed.

-- United Utilities Inc. (90% owned by Sea Lion Corporation) begins installing telephone service here.

-- Water well in new housing area built.


-- Commercial herring started in Kokechik Bay, 10 miles to the north of the city.

-- Boardwalks in new housing area built.

-- Summer fresh water system built.

-- Agnes Hoelscher becomes first woman mayor of Hooper Bay.

-- Population, 624.


-- Accelerated O.C.S. leasing schedule announced by U.S. Dept. of the Interior. Reaction against this schedule very strong by Hooper Bay and other villages in area.

-- A.V.C.P. prohibits oil and gas industry representatives from coming into area.

Compiled by Maria Green,
Hooper Bay




From The Upward Bound Students
In Memory Of


A Brief Historical Sketch of
Hooper Bay


Lena Smith

- Mary Greene

Dick Bunyan

- Mary Greene

Eva Black

- Emma Smith

Lola Hill

- Marita Smith

Kirt Bell

- Francis Bell

Don't Be Lazy
- Marita Smith

Martha Kopanuk

- Eleanor Tomaganuk

Pete Kopanuk

- Chuck Rivers

Erma Tomaganuk

- Eleanor Tomaganuk

Natalia Smith

- Barbara Smith

Ted Hunter

- Eleanor Tomaganuk

Flora Green

- Marita Smith

Mike Simon

- Emma Smith

Aldine Simon

- Eleanor Tomaganuk

Angelo Hoelscher

- Eleanor Tomaganuk

Maggie Hoelscher

- Edna Lake

Johnathan Johnson

- Edna Lake

Stephanie Johnson

- Edna Lake

Christmastime Tales
Stories real and imaginary about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 1996
Christmastime Tales II
Stories about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 1998
Christmastime Tales III
Stories about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 2000
Summer Time Tails 1992 Summertime Tails II 1993 Summertime Tails III
Summertime Tails IV Fall, 1995 Summertime Tails V Fall, 1996 Summertime Tails VI Fall, 1997
Summertime Tails VII Fall, 1999 Signs of the Times November 1996 Creative Stories From Creative Imaginations
Mustang Mind Manglers - Stories of the Far Out, the Frightening and the Fantastic 1993 Yupik Gourmet - A Book of Recipes  
M&M Monthly    
Happy Moose Hunting! September Edition 1997 Happy Easter! March/April 1998 Merry Christmas December Edition 1997
Happy Valentine’s Day! February Edition 1998 Happy Easter! March/April Edition 2000 Happy Thanksgiving Nov. Edition, 1997
Happy Halloween October 1997 Edition Edible and Useful Plants of Scammon Bay Edible Plants of Hooper Bay 1981
The Flowers of Scammon Bay Alaska Poems of Hooper Bay Scammon Bay (Upward Bound Students)
Family Trees and the Buzzy Lord It takes a Village - A guide for parents May 1997 People in Our Community
Buildings and Personalities of Marshall Marshall Village PROFILE Qigeckalleq Pellullermeng ‘A Glimpse of the Past’
Raven’s Stories Spring 1995 Bird Stories from Scammon Bay The Sea Around Us
Ellamyua - The Great Weather - Stories about the Weather Spring 1996 Moose Fire - Stories and Poems about Moose November, 1998 Bears Bees and Bald Eagles Winter 1992-1993
Fish Fire and Water - Stories about fish, global warming and the future November, 1997 Wolf Fire - Stories and Poems about Wolves Bear Fire - Stories and Poems about Bears Spring, 1992



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Last modified August 23, 2006