Athabascans of Interior Alaska: 4th Grade Social Studies Unit: Section 2

Athabascan Raven

TEACHER'S GUIDE

4th Grade Social Studies Unit

Written By
  Patricia H. Partnow

Section 2: ATHABASCANS
5-7 days

 OBJECTIVES

1. Students define the term "Athabascan" (as it refers to both a group of languages and to the people who speak the languages)
2. Students know how many Alaskan Athabascan languages there are
3. Students can name at least two Alaskan Athabascan languages
4. Students can name at least 10 specific adaptations which Athabascans have made in the past.

MATERIALS

1.Student text, Alaskan Athabascans
2. Native language tapes from University of Alaska library (enrichment)
3. 1 copy Needzeek (enrichment)
4. Handouts 1 and 2
5. UN 621 Alaska History (enrichment)
6. Worksheets II, III & IV
7. 2 sets Athabascan Artifact Cards
8. 10 sets Data sheets
9. Upper Tanana House Poster
10. Quiz 2
 PREPARATION
1. Invite an Athabascan-speaking resource person to class (enrichment)
2. Read Appendix A in this guide for information about Athabascan cultures
3. Make copies of Handouts 1 & 2 and Worksheets II, III, IV & Quiz 2 (1 per student)
4. Order UN 621 or other materials avail-able in ASD AVS Center (enrichment)
5. Prepare any centers you desire (sug-gestions follow)
6. Tack up Upper Tanana House Poster
ACTIVITIES
1. Read and discuss Chapter III in Alaskan Athabascans
2. Listen to a tape or a speaker of one or more Athabascan languages (enrichment)
3. Study the Native Peoples and Languages of Alaska map
4. Word Find Puzzle (Worksheet II)
5. Alaska Map (Worksheet III)
6. Classify Athabascan Artifact Cards
7. Worksheet IV
8. Enrichment activities with Athabascan Artifact Cards
9. Enrichment: using other materials available in ASD AVS Center
10.Read about Bering Land Bridge (enrichment)
11.Quiz 2
New Vocabulary:
Athabascan
Upper Tanana
Tanana
Ahtna
Kutchin
Holikachuk
Tanaina
Ingalik
Han
Koyukon
Upper Kuskokwim
Tanacross

CONCEPT: there ARE 11 ALASKAN ATHABASCAN GROUPS
This section of the unit will center on helping students to assimilate information on Athabascans and on map work. 

READ TEXT: CHAPTER III IN ALASKAN ATHABASCANS
First, have students read Chapter III in their texts. Review with them what they have read.

CHAPTER III
Athabascans

If you are an Athabascan Indian, you are one of about 200,000 people in North America. There are more Athabascans than any other American Indian group. In Alaska alone there are about 6,400 Athabascans, and there are also Athabascan groups in Canada, California, and the American Southwest. But what does the word Athabascan mean?

The word "Athabascan" is used to talk about a group of languages which were once, thousands of years ago, the same language. Over the years people moved away from each other and their languages started to become different. At first, just the accents were different--something like the difference between a Southern accent and an English accent. But people were so far apart that they never talked to each other, and slowly different

DISCUSSION
Discuss what the Athabascan areas have in common. Speculate on why most Athabascan settlements are located on rivers. Discuss the types of food and shelter students expect people to use in the Athabascan areas of Alaska. NOTE: Although water travel and fishing have probably always been important to Athabascans, the settlements

words took on different meanings, or the words themselves changed. For instance, the word for "gloves" became "gech" for one group of people and "gis" for another group of people. Through the years the differences between the two groups became greater and greater until people in one area could no longer understand people in another area. Whenever that happens, we say that the two groups of people speak different languages.

 That is what happened to the Athabascan language. Today there are eleven Athabascan languages in Alaska alone: Ahtna, Tanaina (also spelled Denaina), Holikachuk, Koyukon, Upper Kuskokwim, Tanana, Tanacross, Upper Tanana, Han, Kutchin (more correctly spelled "Gwich'in"), and Ingalik (more correctly Deg Hit'an). There are other Athabascan languages in Canada. And there are two well known Athabascan languages in the American Southwest: Apache and Navajo.

 The word "Athabascan" is used to talk about both the languages and the people who speak (or whose ancestors spoke) that language. The name "Athabascan" originally came from the large lake in Canada called "Lake Athabasca". The lake was given its name by the Cree Indians, who lived east of it. In Cree, "Athabasca" means "grass here and there", and described the lake. The name was also used to talk about the Indian groups that lived west of the lake.

 You can see on the language map of Alaska that the area inhabited by Athabascans is one of the largest of the Native areas in the state. The area is all inland, except for the part around Cook Inlet. Find the Athabascan settlements on the map. You can see that most of them are located on rivers, what needs can you think of that rivers might help fulfill?

DISCUSSION (cont.)
were traditionally located on small tributaries rather than major rivers. Fishing was done by means of a weir or traps, both useless methods on the Yukon. The move to major rivers occurred as a result of Gold Rush trade above the river and the permanent settlement of people into villages after schools were established in the interior.

LEARN ABOUT YOUR STUDENTS
Are there Athabascan students in your class? If so, ask them where their families are originally from. Have them find their ancestral homes on the Native Peoples and Languages of Alaska map and mark them. Learn what Athabascan language is spoken there. If their parents speak the language, try to arrange for a classroom visit by the parents.

ENRICHMENT OR LEARNING CENTER: LANGUAGES
Check out any one of many Athabascan language cassette tapes recorded in 1972-73 as part of the Alaska Native Oral Language Project. The tapes are available from the University of Alaska library or the Alaska State Library. One good tape is #204, "Man in the Moon" told by David Salmon in English and Kutchin. Make the tape available for students to listen to. Make a checklist for students which might include the following items:

1. What languages are spoken on this tape?
2. Locate the Athabascan language on a map of Alaska.
3. David Salmon is from Chalkyitsik. Find it on the map.
4. Read Needzeek, an Upper Tanana story. Compare the two stories. (Needzeek should be in your school library; it is also part of UN 601, Athabascan Social Studies, available in the ASD AVS Center.)
5. Why do you think the stories are different?

MAP WORK
DISCUSSION AND REVIEW

Next, begin an extensive study of the Native Peoples and Languages of Alaska map. The following strategies might be followed:

1. Have a student identify Anchorage's location on the map. Mark it with a pin. Ask students to locate their home towns, if they have moved to Anchorage from other parts of Alaska. Mark those areas on the map also.

2. Ask students to use the information they have just read in their texts to locate the Athabascan area on the Language Map. What color family represents the Athabascan area? They should be able to tell you that the Athabascan territories are in shades of pink. You might briefly note the other colors which relate to other Native groups as well: Eskimo languages are in shades of blue; Aleut is green; Tlingit is brown; Haida is purple; and Tsimshian is Kelly green.

3. Now concentrate on the Athabascan area. Point out the major river systems that run through that area: the Yukon- Tanana- Porcupine- -Koyukon System, Copper River, the Susitna River, and the Upper Kuskokwim River.

4. Now point out that the Athabascan area is subdivided into eleven smaller areas, with each area being colored a slightly differ-ent shade of pink. Note that whereas there is a heavy white line around the entire Athabascan area, there are thinner white lines around each separate shade. Ask students what each shade represents. Refer them to their reading. They should be able to tell you that each shade represents one of the eleven Athabascan languages.

There are also dotted white lines within some of the language areas. You need not cover these with the class unless they ask. They refer to dialects within a language. Recall that a dialect is something like an accent, and that dialects are close enough to each other so that people speaking different dialects can still understand each other. People speaking different languages, on the other hand, cannot understand each other.

5. Review the concept of language family, which was mentioned in the student text. You might inform students that English, too, is in a language family called "Indo-European". Most of the European and Indian (i.e., from India, not American Indian) languages are within that family. Ask students if they can remember what that tells them about the relationship between English and French, for instance.

The answer: they were once the same language, which was differ-ent from both languages, and have diverged through the centuries.

Similarly, the eleven Athabascan languages were also at one time a single language. Ask students, "How do you think it happened that the languages separated from each other?"

6. Point out the Table of Language Groups on the middle left side of the map. Alert students to the fact that the eleven languages are listed (along with a twelfth, Eyak, which is closely related to Athabascan but which is not itself Athabascan) in that key, along with the colors that represent them. Although the students in the back of the room will not be able to see the numbers, mention them to the class. Explain that those numbers tell how many people there are in each of the eleven Athabascan groups.

DESK MAPS
Now distribute the desk maps (Handout #1) and Pronunciation Key (Handout #2) to students. Ask a quick series of questions to stimulate students to study the map. For instance,

1. Which Athabascan area is next to the ocean?
2. In which Athabascan area is Fairbanks located?
3. In which Athabascan area is Anchorage located?
4. Which Athabascan area extends farthest north?
5. Which Athabascan area extends farthest west?

Now, together as a class, pronounce the eleven language names. You might have students color in their desk maps to correspond with the colors on the Language Map. Students who need additional help could be aided in making jigsaw puzzles out of their colored maps. Glue cardboard or construction paper to the back of the map before cut-ting along the language boundaries.

ENRICHMENT: CLOSER MAP STUDY
If you feel your students need or desire more work with the map, have them more closely investigate the large wall copy of the Language Map. Give each group or individual a list of questions, the answers of which are to be found on the map. You will need to stagger work on this task so that only three to four students are at the map at a time.

Sample questions might be:
a. Pick a language. Write it down.
b. Tell the population of that language group.
c. Tell how many people speak the language today.
d. Tell the names of the villages or communities within that language area.
e. Tell what rivers (if any) the villages are located on.

WORKSHEETS II AND III
Now distribute Worksheets II and III. Worksheet II can be done in small groups, and will require that you allow students to go to the large wall map to find some of the answers. This might be assigned as a homework or extra-time activity so that students' visits to the wall map will be staggered. Or, you might have part of the class work on this activity while the rest works on activities dealing with the Athabascan Artifact Cards (suggestions follow).

Students should be allowed to use their desk maps and the wall map in completing both worksheets.

SOME ATHABASCAN ADAPTATIONS: ARTIFACT CARDS, DATA SHEETS, UPPER TANANA HOUSE POSTER
The Athabascan Artifact Cards and Upper Tanana House Poster pro-vide examples of some specific adaptations which Athabascans tradi-tionally made to their environment. There are 16 different artifact cards, and each class should have two sets. Activities in which students use the cards should be done in small groups of up to six students. Therefore, up to twelve students might do the following activities at the same time. You might have some students working with the cards while others are finishing up some of the Language Map ac-tivities described on the preceding pages.

Because the whole class will not be doing the following activities at the same time, you might want to set up a center containing the cards, the poster, and the Data Sheets. Or, you might want to write up directions for students to follow rather than to verbally explain their tasks.

DEFINE ARTIFACT
Before involving students with the cards, define the word "artifact". Explain that anything human-made is an artifact - not just those things which have been favored by archaeologists. Ask for examples of artifacts from your classroom. Pencils, blackboards, even clothing would be considered artifacts.

WARM-UP
The first small-group activity with the cards is a warm-up exer-cise which entails finding the various items pictured on the cards in the Upper Tanana House Poster. Students needn't write anything at this stage; they should merely cooperate to find an example of each card's item somewhere in the poster picture.

CLASSIFICATION EXERCISE
Second, have students perform a classification exercise. The group is to classify the sixteen artifact cards according to the needs which each item pictured helps to fulfill. Students may use the Data Sheets to find out what the item were used for. Tell them that there may be different ways of classifying the cards, but that their group must come up with a way that is satisfactory to all members. Have them record the categories on a piece of paper. When all student groups have had a chance to do this exercise, ask for the classification schemes and compare them. Have the students explain why they placed the item where they did. Stress that there is not a single correct or incorrect way to do this.

HOUSE POSTER
Third, have students look closely at the Upper Tanana House Poster. Ask each group to write a paragraph about that poster including at least the following information, and any more you feel is important:

a. This house was built in the Upper Tanana Athabascan area. Find it on the map of Alaska and be prepared to show the rest of the class where it is.
b. What materials were used in making this house?
c. How is this house adapted to cold winters? Name as many ways as you can.

WORKSHEET IV
Worksheet IV may be filled in individually or in the same small groups that were involved in the group activities described on the pre-ceding pages. Each student should fill out his own worksheet, but re-search may be a joint effort. Distribute the ten sets of Data Sheets as you see fit, or leave them at the center for students to work on at various times throughout the day.

An alternate approach to Worksheet IV is to divide up the 18 questions among student groups, assigning each group five of the ques-tions to answer. In a class report session, groups report their answers and other students are responsible for learning the answers from them. This method will take less time, but will also tend to decrease the students' overall knowledge of the subject.

ENRICHMENT: ARTIFACT CARDS
Students might invent a card game (Concentration, for instance) using the two sets of Artifact Cards together, in which students must name both the item and something about it in order to win.

For a writing assignment shuffle the Artifact Cards and distri-bute the top four to a student. Have the student write a short story using those four items. In an oral language exercise, have students sitting in a circle. The first student is given the top card. He or she must then tell an anecdote or short story mentioning that item. He or she may then give another card to the next student in the circle, who then tells a short anecdote of his own.

When all manipulative activities with the cards have been completed, students might tack the cards onto the wall next to the Language Map or Upper Tanana House Poster, linking with yarn the ob-jects and their places of origin or positions on the poster.

ENRICHMENT: ADDITIONAL MATERIALS
Other materials pertinent to Athabascan adaptations are available in the district and might be checked out at this time. They include F 2035 The Birch Canoe Builder, UN 487 Athabascan Stories, UN 515 Athabascan Caribou Hunt Kit, UN 594 Traditional Alaska Native Transportation Kit, UN 601 Athabascan Social Studies Unit, and UN 647 Alaska Natives at the Turn of the Century.

ENRICHMENT: BERING LAND BRIDGE
UN 621, Alaska History, consists of a classroom set of books on Alaska History written at a 5th to 6th grade level. The first chapter details the Bering Land Bridge theory, which would fit in well at this point in instruction if you wish to cover it. You might also find chapters 6, 7 and 9 useful at this point.

QUIZ:
Administer Quiz 2.

HANDOUT I
DESK MAP: ATHABASCAN LANGUAGE AREAS

map

HANDOUT 2
PRONUNCIATION KEY FOR ALASKAN ATHABASCAN LANGUAGE NAMES

Ahtna

Ät'nõ

Han

Hän

Holikachuk

Hä'li kõ chuk

Ingalik(Deg Hit'an)

In gal' ik(Deg' hit än')

Koyukon

Kö yõ kän

Kutchin(Gwich'in)

Köö chin'(Gwich in')

Tanacross

Ta' nõ cräs

Tanaina (Denaina)

Tõ nï' nõ(Dõ nä' ë nä)

Tanana

Ta' nõ nä

Upper Kuskokwim

Kus' kõ kwim

Upper Tanana

Ta' n∂ nä

Pronunciation Key
Ë as in ëven
õ as in "a" in ago
ï as in bïte
ä as in "o" in top
öö as in tool
u as in up
I as in hit
A as in fat
E as in pen

  

WORKSHEET II
ATHABASCAN TERMS

WORDSEARCH

DIRECTIONS: Find answers to as many of the following clues in this puzzle as you can. Words may be spelled frontward, backwards, up and down, or diagonally. The same letters may be used in more than one word.

word search

 CLUES:
1. The eleven Athabascan languages
2. The Indians of the interior of Alaska are known as _____________.
3. A ______________ is a requirement which all people share.
4. In fulfilling basic needs from our environment, we ________ to that environment.
5. Three villages in the Tanaina area.
6. A village in the Upper Tanana area.
7. A village in the Han area.
8. A village in the Kutchin area.
9. A village in the Ingalik area.
10. Three villages in the Koyukon area.
11. A village in the Ahtna area.
12. A village in the Tanana area.

Answer Key
WORKSHEET II
ATHABASCAN TERMS
WORDSEARCH

DIRECTIONS: Find answers to as many of the following clues in this puzzle as you can. Words may be spelled frontward, backwards, up and down, or diagonally. The same letters may be used in more than one word.

answers to word search

CLUES:
1. The eleven Athabascan languages:

Ahtna

Han

Holikachuk

Ingalik

Koyukon

Kutchin

Tanacross

Tanaina

Tanana

Upper Kuskokwim

Upper Tanana

2. The Indians of the interior of Alaska are known as _____Athabascans________.

3. A _____basic need_________ is a requirement which all people share.

4. In fulfilling basic needs from our environment, we ____adapt____ to that environment.

5. Three villages in the Tanaina area.
Eklutna, Tyonek, Kenai
6. A village in the Upper Tanana area.
Tetlin
7. A village in the Han area.
Eagle
8. A village in the Kutchin area.
Venetie
9. A village in the Ingalik area.
Anvik
10. Three villages in the Koyukon area.
Huslia, Nulato, Galena
11. A village in the Ahtna area.
Gakona
12. A village in the Tanana area.
Minto
WORKSHEET III

DIRECTIONS: Label each of the Athabascan languages shown on this map. You may use the Native Peoples and Languages of Alaska map as your guide.

map

 Answer Guide
WORKSHEET III

DIRECTIONS: Label each of the Athabascan languages shown on this map. You may use the Native Peoples and Languages of Alaska map as your guide.

map

Kutchin(Gwich'in)

Upper Kuskokwim

Han

Koyukon

Tanaina(Dena'ina)

Upper Tanana

Holikachuk

Ahtna

Tanacross

Ingalik

Tanana

WORKSHEET IV
TRADITIONAL ATHABASCAN ADAPTATIONS

1. What adaptation did the Athabascans make to winter traveling needs?

2. What item did the Athabascans value which traveled hundreds of miles before it reached them?

3. Draw a picture of a kind of basket the Athabascans used to catch fish.

4. How can you start a fire without a match?

5. How can you cook food in a birch bark container without burning it?

6. Nowadays, mothers use plastic infant seats to carry newborn babies around. What did Athabascan mothers use?

7. Nowadays this tool is made with a metal blade; but in the old days, it was made with a blade of a hard, smooth stone. What is it and what was it used for in the old days?

8. This weapon was only used by the bravest men. What was it?

9. What materials were canoes made of?

10. The bow and arrow were an Athabascan man's most important weapon. Describe some of the different types of arrows and how each was used.

11. Although birch bark baskets are still made today, they are made mostly for beauty, not use. What do you think serves the same purpose today that birch bark containers used to serve?

12. Name two methods of hunting that do not require the hunter to be there.

13. This object got its name from a part of a fish. Tell what it is and explain how it works.

14. In what Athabascan area was the Hoop Game played? Explain how it helped prepare boys for hunting.

15. What are scrapers used for?

16. What is babiche?

17. Athabascan women, as well as men, helped obtain food in the old days. Tell which food-getting objects women used.

18. Which materials did the Athabascans seem to make most use of in their adaptations, as shown by the Artifact Cards?

ANSWER GUIDE
WORKSHEET IV
TRADITIONAL ATHABASCAN ADAPTATIONS
1. What adaptation did the Athabascans make to winter traveling needs?
Snowshoes
 

2. What item did the Athabascans value which traveled hundreds of miles before it reached them?

Dentalium

3. Draw a picture of a kind of basket the Athabascans used to catch fish.

 

Picture of fish trap

4. How can you start a fire without a match?
With a fire/bow drill. An explanation of how it works can be included in the answer.

 

5. How can you cook food in a birch bark container without burning it?

 By using boiling stones. An explanation of how they work can be included.
 

6. Nowadays, mothers use plastic infant seats to carry newborn babies around. What did Athabascan mothers use?

Birchbark baby carriers
 

7. Nowadays this tool is made with a metal blade; but in the old days, it was made with a blade of a hard, smooth stone. What is it and what was it used for in the old days?

Adze. Used for cutting down trees, chopping wood, and fashioning bowls and wooden tools.
 

8. This weapon was only used by the bravest men. What was it?

Bear spear
 

9. What materials were canoes made of?

Spruce wood for the frame
Birch bark for the cover

Spruce root for the lashing

Spruce gum glue for caulking
 

10. The bow and arrows were an Athabascan man's most important weapon. Describe sore of the different types of arrows and how each was used.

Blunt-headed arrows for small game or birds
Long bone arrowheads for caribou
 

11. Although birch bark baskets are still made today, they are made mostly for beauty, not use. What do you think serves the same purpose today that birch bark containers used to serve?

Answers will vary. Include paper bags, buckets, baskets, boxes, trunks, suitcases, jars, cans, etc.
 

12. Name two methods of hunting that do not require the hunter to be there.

Deadfall
snare

13. This object got its name from a part of a fish. Tell what it is and explain how it works.

gill net - when a fish swims into it, its gills get caught in the mesh.
 

14. In what Athabascan area was the Hoop Game played? Explain how it helped prepare boys for hunting.

Kutchin (or Gwich 'in) area. Boys had to learn to throw quickly, accurately, and far, all important skills in using spears in hunting.
 

15. What are scrapers used for?

To remove flesh, fat and fur from a hide so it can be made into a useful item.
 

16. What is babiche?

Thinly sliced rawhide used in making snowshoes.
 

17. Athabascan women, as well as men, helped obtain food in the old days. Tell which food-getting objects women used.

Baskets, snares, deadfalls, gill nets, fish traps
 

18. Which materials did the Athabascans seem to make most use of in their adaptations, as shown by the Artifact Cards?

Birch bark, wood, roots
---Also used, but not in as great abundance, were bone, stone, leather, sinew, and dentalium shells.

  

QUIZ 2
ATHABASCANS

1. Directions: Below is a list of needs which the Athabascans of the past had. Next to each need are one or two spaces. In each space, write the adaptation which the Athabascans made to meet that need. NOTE: Possible answers are given in the list of words below. In some cases there is more than one adaptation. Write both down. (60 points)

 

NEED

ADAPTATION

Travel in winter

a. ________________________

Chop wood and split boards

b. ________________________

Catch food while doing other Things

c. ________________________

d. ________________________

Practice hunting skills

e. ________________________

Prepare skins for clothing

f. ________________________

Catch fish while doing other things

g. ________________________

h. ________________________

Hold food and belongings

i. ________________________

Travel in summer

j. ________________________

Carry babies while traveling

k. ________________________

Start fires

l. ________________________

Hunt animals

m. ________________________

n. ________________________

Cook foods over fires in Bark containers

o. ________________________

Choose answers from among these:

Kayak

dogsled

Throwing board

Scrapers

Boiling stones

Hoop game

Snowshoes

Adze

Fire drill

Harpoon

Hammock

Snare

Bow and arrows

Knife

Gill net

Birch bark baby carrier

Ivory spoons

Flint and steel

Tannic acid

Bear spear

Sealskin bag

Birch bark canoe

Fish trap

Containers(birch bark or wood)

Hide and seek

halibut hook

Toboggan

Deadfall

2. What does the word "Athabascan" mean? (8 points)
 _____A. "Grass here and there"
 _____B. "People who hunt caribou"
 _____C. "Those who bask in the sun"
 _____D. "Land of tall trees and rivers"

3. The word "Athabascan" refers to several different things today. For one thing, there is a lake in Canada named "Lake Athabasca" What else does the word refer to? (8 points)

4. How many Alaskan Athabascan languages are there? (8 points)

5. Name two Alaskan Athabascan languages. (16 points)

a.
b.

 

Answer Guide
QUIZ 2
ATHABASCANS

1. Directions: Below is a list of needs which the Athabascans of the past had. Next to each need are one or two spaces. In each space, write the adaptation which the Athabascans made to meet that need. NOTE: Possible answers are given in the list of words below. In some cases there is more than one adaptation. Write both down. (60 points)

 

NEED

ADAPTATION

Travel in winter

a. ________Snowshoes

Chop wood and split boards

b. ________Adze

Catch food while doing other Things

c. ________Deadfall

d. _________Snare

Practice hunting skills

e. _________Hoop Game

Prepare skins for clothing

f. _________Scrapers

Catch fish while doing other things

g. _________Gill Net

h. _________Fish Trap

Hold food and belongings

i. __________Containers

Travel in summer

j. __________Birch Bark Canoe

Carry babies while traveling

k. ___Birch Bark Baby Carrier

Start fires

l. __________Fire Drill

Hunt animals

m. __________Bow and Arrows

n. __________Bear Spear

Cook foods over fires in Bark containers

o. __________Boiling Stones

2. What does the word "Athabascan" mean? (8 points)
 __X__A. "Grass here and there"
 _____B. "People who hunt caribou"
 _____C. "Those who bask in the sun"
 _____D. "Land of tall trees and rivers"

3. The word "Athabascan" refers to several different things today. For one thing, there is a lake in Canada named "Lake Athabasca" What else does the word refer to? (8 points)

The Athabascan language, The Athabascan Indians, People who lived west of Lake Athabasca.(Accept any of the above)

4. How many Alaskan Athabascan languages are there? (8 points)

Eleven

5. Name two Alaskan Athabascan languages. (16 points)

a.Upper Tanana, Tanaina, Holikachuk, Upper Kuskokwim, Ahtna, Tanana, Hutchin, Han, Inglaik, Koyukon, Tanacross.
b.
Produced By
The Indian Education Program Anchorage School District
Under Grant #0969A
Part A, Title IV
PL 92-318   

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