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Native Pathways to Education
Alaska Native Cultural Resources
Indigenous Knowledge Systems
Indigenous Education Worldwide
 

HOW WELL ARE INDIAN
CHILDREN EDUCATED?

APPENDIX A

CONSTRUCTION OF SPECIAL TESTS FOR
THE USIS SERVICE-WIDE TESTING PROGRAM

RURAL PRACTICES TESTS

Teachers in Indian Schools have been urged to place emphasis upon training in rural practices. Those things which they have been encouraged to include deal with the conservation and uses of natural resources, health and safety factors, and homemaking practices. The type of training which has been recommended is received by most rural white children in their everyday home experiences, but most Indian children do not receive it unless it is included in the school curriculum. The objective of this group of tests then, was to measure the effectiveness of the Indian Schools' emphasis upon this sort of training.

Samples of the 1946 editions of the test, which were constructed by members of the Indian Service staff and the University of Chicago consultants, are all included in Appendix B. Indian Service personnel from the field suggested many of the stated objectives and aims for the examinations, and were helpful in determining what Indian Schools are teaching. They also suggested some of the misconceptions prevalent among the children to be tested.

RESOURCES TESTS

Resources tests dealing with several types of subjects were constructed and administered as a part of the pilot study in 1944. Mr. Vernon Beggs, Supervisor of Indian Education, who analyzed the results of the pilot study, recommended the preparation of a single general test, and of several regional tests adapted to the geographic areas in which Indian Schools are located. In preparation for the 1945 study, a group of area superintendents and supervisors of Indian education were asked to assist in the revision of the resources tests. In the General Resources test only items thought to be important to both boys and girls in all areas were included. The regional resources tests included items of greater importance in one region than in another.

The results of the 1945 program suggested the possibility that the General Resources test was inadequate because it contained only 20 items. It was found impractical to draw conclusions from the Regional Resources test data. Furthermore, it appeared that many of the items in the regional tests were of as much importance in one region as in another, and that in many cases the difference actually reflected the importance attached to the item by those who participated in the construction of the test rather than a difference in the importance of the item in different regions. It was therefore decided that only one resources test would be used in the 1946 study, but that in addition to retaining all the original items, all of those items of general importance would be incorporated in the general test. The additional items included were those selected from the regional tests by those who had participated in the original construction of the tests, as being of importance to students in all geographic regions.

HOME ECONOMICS TEST

Though some questions pertaining to foods were included as a part of the rural practices examinations in the 1944 pilot study, the construction of the Home Economics test was not. completed in time for use as one of the trial examinations. Because of the emphasis given in the federal Indian Schools to homemaking, it seemed important to include measurement of the students' information in this area.

The statements of objectives of this home economics program, upon which the test was based, were those of members of the Indian Service staff responsible for the supervision of this type of instruction. Because only those objectives of importance in all areas were included, no attempt was made to construct regional tests. Thus, it is recognized that certain special objectives of individual schools are not measured by the test. On the other hand, the test differs from most of the standardized tests in that the items included are pertinent to rural, rather than urban living. Though some of the items have proved to be more highly discriminating than others, revision was postponed pending the analysis of the 1946 data.

HEALTH AND SAFETY TEST

The need for a test to measure the outcomes of instruction in health and safety was recognized early, and construction of this test was undertaken in time to include it in the trial testing program. Members of the U. S. Indian Service Health Division contributed to the test construction. The results indicated the possibility that several of the items introduced unnecessary language difficulties, such as the statement of a problem in a negative form. Consequently a number of the items were retained, but restated before administration of the test in 1945. The test was not revised further before its use in the 1946 program.

RURAL PRACTICES VOCABULARY TEST

For the purpose of determining if the vocabulary used in the various ions rural practices tests constituted a handicap to understanding the test content special. vocabulary test was constructed for ad-ministration in, the 1946. program. Each word in each of the three rural practices tests was checked for frequency on the Thorndike frequency list. All of the words of the test were then grouped, group 1 representing those words found in the first 1,000 on the Thorndike list, group 2 those in the second thousand, etc. Group 8 included all words in the eighth thousand or over. A random sample of words was then selected by taking from each of the three tests three words representing each of the eight levels of difficulty, i.e. in Test number 1, Health and Safety, there were 74 words which occurred in the first thousand. Words numbered 18, 36, and 54 were selected for use in the test for this lowest level of difficulty. (Some of the simplest prepositions, conjunctions, etc., such as "in" and "and" were not listed.) The words included in the test were selected from both the questions and the correct answers. In the Rural Practices Vocabulary Test, the word being tested is included in a context as nearly identical as possible to that in which the word appears in the original test from which it was selected.

FREE WRITING TESTS

The problem of constructing a test to measure the student's ability to write correctly is obviously much simpler than the evaluation of the material which the student writes. In order that the students would all write about the same topic, two pictures were selected as the stimulus for the students' writing. The directions for the tests were suggestive of .the type of composition expected. Results indicated that the picture used in Form A stimulated a freer response than that used in Form B. For this reason, Form A only was used in the 1946 program.


APPENDIX B

EXAMPLES OF THE TESTS PREPARED ESPECIALLY
TO MEASURE CURRICULUM MATERIAL
UNIQUE TO INDIAN SCHOOLS

Sample Questions

Background Information

Background Information

Tests in Rural Practices

USE OF RESOURCES

Timber, form lands, coal, oil, mines and wild life are called natural resources. Nature has given us these things to help us make a living.

DIRECTIONS: This test is made up of a number of items about some of these resources. Each item has four possible answers. Choose the best answer in each item and place a check beside it Check only ONE answer in each item.

PART A

1. A person who understands the nature and importance of natural resources, knows that

_______A. the man who owns these resources should be allowed to use them or sell them as he wishes.
_______B. all resources should be owned and controlled by the government.
_______C. the one who owns them should use them so that they will continue to produce for many years to come.
_______D. the one who owns timber or other resources should sell all of it whenever the price is high or the need is great.

2. The money received from the sale of natural resources should be

_______A. divided equally among the owners.

_______B. used to build a large community building.

_______C. used to buy a herd of cattle to feed and sell on the market.

_______D. used to buy land or other resources of continuing value.

3. Irrigation is the method by which water is carried and applied to the soil. Irrigation will

_______A. make sure of a good crop every year

_______B. provide water when it does not rain.

_______C. make it easier to farm the land.

_______D. help control weeds and insect pests.

4. Weeds rob the soil of plant food and cut down the yield of crops. The best method to control harmful weeds on crop land is to

_______A. pasture the fields with sheep, goats or cattle.
_______B. allow the fields to stand idle without cultivation every other year.
_______C. pull up all of the weeds that have gone to seed and burn hedges and fence rows.
_______D. plant clean seed, cultivate thoroughly, and change crops from year to year

5. The greatest loss to farmers from insect pests results from the fact that insects

_______A. make much extra work for the former.

_______B. annoy the livestock and keep them from feeding.

_______C. reduce the amount and quality of form and orchard crops.

_______D. cause the farmer to spend a great deal of money to control or destroy them.

6. Insects which harm garden or fruit crops will best be held in check when

_______A. man leaves them to their natural enemies.

_______B. seeds are planted at greater depth.

_______C. sprayed or dusted with insect poison.

_______D. fields are cultivated regularly and frequently.

7. Less of the top soil of cultivated land will blow away during heavy winds when

_______A. contour plowing is practiced.

_______B. every other strip of land is always covered with a growing crop.

_______C. whole fields are covered with the same type of crops.

_______D. crops are changed from year to year.

8. Clover and alfalfa should be included in farm crops because they

_______A. yield more feed than any other crop.

_______B. build up the soil more than any other crop.

_______C. always make a crop in dry years.

_______D. can be harvested when there is little other farm work.

9. Indians used to bury a fish in every hill of corn to

_______A. observe a religious practice of the tribe.

_______B. make the seed sprout more quickly.

_______C. get rid of spoiled fish.

_______D. fertilize the hill of corn.

10. Growing plants require food. They get this food from the soil in which they grow. If crops are to be planted year after year on this land, food must be returned to the soil. In your area this could be done by

_______A. spreading barnyard manure or commercial fertilizer on the fields.

_______B. allowing the land to lie idle every other year.

_______C. allowing no weeds to grow on the field.

_______D. burning straw and stubble on the ground after harvest.

11. Top soil will be prevented from washing away when

_______A. a cover of protective growing plants is kept on the soil whenever possible.
_______B. crops are planted in straight rows running from the top of the hill to the bottom.
_______C. a prayer stick is planted in the middle of the field.
_______D. hillside fields are planted to cultivated crops year after year.

12. A farmer or rancher would be wise to lease his form or grazing land only when

_______A. he has several small tracts of land widely separated and unprofitable to operate.
_______B. it can be rented to a friend.
_______C. the owner needs an income.
_______D. the land cannot be used for crop farming.

13. Native pasture grasses are destroyed when

_______A. the grass is cut for hay each year:

_______B. livestock keeps the gross cropped too close to permit reseeding.

_______C. heavy winter snows cover the gross for long periods of time.

_______D. rainfall in any one year is less than the average amount.

14. A pure bred sire should be used in a livestock program because

_______A. all offspring could then be registered as full-bloods.
_______B. the off-spring will be hardier and better adapted to the country.
_______C. the off-spring will be likely to have a higher market value or produce more income.
_______D. that will guarantee 100 per cent yield of offspring.

15. Every grain farmer should keep a flock of poultry because it will

_______A. produce eggs and meat throughout the year

_______B. yield a very large income throughout the year

_______C. provide interesting and pleasant work for the younger members of the family.

_______D. live on table scraps alone.

16. When the amount of annual rainfall is from 10 to 20 inches conditions are usually well suited for

_______A. general farming and dairying.

_______B. stock raising and dry farming.

_______C. fruit growing and gardening.

_______D. no production of any kind.

17 Birds should be given shelter and protection in farming areas because

_______A. they feed on weed seeds and insects that are harmful to crops.

_______B. they can be killed to supply meat for the farmer.

_______C. they help carry seeds from place to place

_______D. they migrate to warmer countries in the winter

18 Sources of water supply give us drinking water, irrigation, and power. These sources should be controlled by

_______A. the individual who owns the surrounding land.

_______B. a company of private businessmen organized for profit.

_______C. some agency of the government or community

_______D. the people who first discover it

19 Mineral and oil resources should be

_______A. used up as rapidly as possible while the need is great and the prices are high.
_______B. left in the ground so that the next generation may enjoy their use.
_______C. taken from the ground only as long as large scale production is profitable.
_______D. taken out of the ground under regulations that will prevent waste and insure a supply for future needs.

20 The main reason each state has game laws is to

_______A. provide an income for the state from license fees.

_______B. supply hunting for sportsmen.

_______C. prevent birds and wild animals from becoming scarce.

_______D. provide food for the Indians.

PART B

21. One of the best reasons why a person would want to be a rancher or former is because

_______A. he enjoys the work and gets a living from his labor

_______B. he doesn't have a boss over him.

_______C. there is always good money in it.

_______D. all ranchers or farmers are successful men.

22. Planting a different crop each year is a good practice because

_______A. you can grow a larger variety of things.

_______B. it is less work.

_______C. it saves and returns plant food to the soil.

_______D. it brings a larger cash income each year.

23. If you were to examine different kinds of soil under a microscope, the type which would appear to have the largest particles is

_______A. Sandy soil.

_______B. Looms.

_______C. Clay.

_______D. Humus.

24. When purchasing vegetable seeds, it is important to consider the

_______A. amount of seed received for the price.

_______B. reputation of the seed house.

_______C. size of the vegetables as shown on the package.

_______D. size of the seeds in the package.

25. For the purpose of control, harmful plant insects are classified as

_______A. large and small.

_______B. flying and crawling.

_______C. chewing and sucking.

_______D. hard and soft shell.

26. The tools which one would use in making a wooden box are

_______A. Hammer, plane, cold chisel.

_______B. Screw driver, brace, bit.

_______C. Hammer, square, saw.

_______D. Saw, nails, wrench.

27. To get the best information about farming and grazing, one should write to the

_______A. governor.

_______B. state agricultural college.

_______C. United States Weather Bureau.

_______D. state department of education.

28. Before you use a farm Implement the first time, you should have someone show you how to operate it because

_______A. it will save you time.

_______B. you can do a better job with less chance of damage to the implement.

_______C. directions are very seldom found on implements.

_______D. you would never be able to find out for yourself.

29. A farmer or a businessman can find out if he is making money or losing money, if he

_______A. sells his products in the fall.

_______B. keeps complete records of the prices of what he buys and sells.

_______C. gets information from his friends.

_______D. asks the form agent.

30. Garden seed should be planted at such a time that when the young plants appear, they will not be in danger from

_______A. heavy hailstorm.

_______B. severe drought.

_______C. early rainstorm.

_______D. late frost.

31. The age at which pigs should be weaned is

_______A. two to four weeks.

_______B. six to eight weeks.

_______C. three to four months.

_______D. six to eight months.

32. If a rope running through a pulley breaks, the best way to repair the break would be to

_______A. tie the two broken ends together with a square knot.

_______B. buy a new rope.

_______C. splice the two ends together with along splice.

_______D. tie the ends together with baling wire.

33. Form machinery will lost longer if it is

_______A. used by neighbors and friends.

_______B. owned by several people.

_______C. left out in the rain and snow.

_______D. kept greased, repaired, and under shelter.

34. Lumber is generally bought by the

_______A. board foot.

_______B. square foot.

_______C. cubic foot.

_______D. square yard.

35. Grain is generally sold by the

_______A. bushel or hundred weight.

_______B. quart or gallon.

_______C. sack or wagon load.

_______D. cubic foot or square foot.

36. One of the best ways to have proof that you have purchased something is to get a

_______A. bill of sale or receipt.

_______B. commission or discount.

_______C. money order or cash.

_______D. write your name on it.

37. If feed can be raised or is cheap, one or more hogs would be desirable for family use in order to

_______A. provide cash when needed.

_______B. provide meat and lard.

_______C. keep snakes away from the house.

_______D. eat table scraps and garbage.

38. When training a horse to be ridden, one of the things a person should do is to

_______A. whip him until he gives up.

_______B. hobble or tie his front legs.

_______C. treat him kindly but firmly.

_______D. keep feed and water from him until he obeys.

39. A few sheep on a small farm

_______A. will make the farmer a lot of money.

_______B. will furnish work for the children.

_______C. will eat many plants left by other livestock and produce a regular Income.

_______D. will make nice pets.

40. To control lice on hogs it is best to

_______A. dip the hogs in a vat of disinfectant.

_______B. brush the hogs frequently with a stiff brush.

_______C. place an oiled sock on a post where the hogs can rub against it.

_______D. see that hogs' rations contain plenty of minerals.

41. Pink eye is a common disease of

_______A. sheep.

_______B. hogs.

_______C. cattle.

_______D. chickens.

42. When judging beef cattle, the most important qualities ore:

_______A. slow, quiet and easily handled.

_______B. low set, compact, and squarely built.

_______C. will pasture easily on open range.

_______D. gives a fair amount of milk for the family.

43. Pullets that grow slower than others in the flock should be

_______A. kept for layers.

_______B. culled and eaten at home or sold.

_______C. trained for shows.

_______D. mixed with other breeds.

44. Potato beetles can be killed by

_______A. spraying or dusting the leaves of the plant with poison.

_______B. spraying or dusting the beetles themselves with poison.

_______C. setting traps for them.

_______D. having a flock of crows in the potato field.

45. An animal dies from disease A good way to get rid of the body would be to

_______A. drag it to some low place and cover it with rocks.
_______B. sell it to one of the neighbors.
_______C. leave the body for the coyotes and birds.
_______D. dig a hole next to the animal, roll the body in and cover it up with dirt and rocks.

46. The age of a yearling horse or cow is about

_______A. 12 months.

_______B. 18 months.

_______C. 24 months.

_______D. 36 months.

47. The breed of beef cattle which has a white face is:

_______A. Shorthorn.

_______B. Angus.

_______C. Hereford.

_______D. Calloway.

48. Cattle are branded to

_______A. indicate their breed.

_______B. show what state they are from.

_______C. show who owns them.

_______D. provide training for boys.

49. Instruments should be disinfected before vaccinating each animal in order to

_______A. practice what was learned in school.

_______B. abide by the law of the range.

_______C. prevent infection and the spread of disease.

_______D. keep the cattle from dying.

50. The future of the farming and ranching industry will generally be good because.

_______A. more people are engaged in it than in any other industry.

_______B. there is an abundance of forming and grass land still not in use.

_______C. many young men are being trained to become farmers and ranchers.

_______D. people everywhere must depend upon the products of farms and ranches.

51. The goat is a practical and useful animal for a family because it

_______A. lives on rogs and trash around the house.

_______B. gives more milk than a dairy cow.

_______C. produces wholesome milk on a small amount of feed.

_______D. protects sheep.

52. Windows in a hen house should be placed so that

_______A. sunlight will strike every part of the floor sometime during the day.

_______B. part of the floor will be dark at all times.

_______C. chickens will have fresh air blowing on them during the day.

_______D. chickens can get out in case of fire.

53. A farmer insured his crop. It was later destroyed by hail. When he tried to collect money for the damage, the company told him that his policy did not protect the crop against hail. The farmer should

_______A. sue the company for enough money to pay the damage.

_______B. buy insurance from another company.

_______C. form the habit of reading and understanding a paper before he signs it.

_______D. write his Congressman, asking for a change in the low.

54. In butchering animals it is important to bleed them freely so that

_______A. the meat will cure properly and not spoil so easily.

_______B. the meat can be cut up more easily.

_______C. the meat will be more nourishing.

_______D. the animal will die quickly and the butchering can be done faster.

55. For a vegetable garden, one should select a plot that is

_______A. protected from grasshoppers and stray horses.

_______B. fertile and near water.

_______C. level and near the house.

_______D. easy to cultivate.

56. Cattlemen with small herds should cooperate in shipping cattle because it is

_______A. more fun to ship large numbers.

_______B. cheaper for each cattleman.

_______C. necessary to fill each stock car.

_______D. an opportunity for neighbors to work together.

57. Each rural family should have a garden because

_______A. the children can learn all about agriculture.

_______B. it will add to the looks of the farm.

_______C. the neighbors always have a garden.

_______D. it will supply the home with fresh vegetables.

58. In raising livestock it is very important to keep the barn or pens clean and sanitary because

_______A. animals like to live in clean places.

_______B. barns and yards are made more attractive.

_______C. there are laws against dirt and filth.

_______D. this keeps the animals healthier.

59. The best way to learn forming and ranching while at school is to

_______A. take part in agriculture projects.

_______B. learn by talking to other students.

_______C. make a written or oral report once a week.

_______D. listen to the teacher.

60. The best way to clean milk cans and buckets is to

_______A. scrub them with soap and water.

_______B. wash and put them in the sun to dry.

_______C. use a strong disinfectant on them.

_______D. wash in cold water, rinse in scalding water and put in the sun to dry.

PART C

61. The money received from the sale of natural resources should be

_______A. used to pay for the cost of a fair or rodeo.

_______B. used to buy land or other resources of continuing value.

_______C. used to buy a herd of cattle to feed and sell.

_______D. used to build a large community building.

62. The purpose of irrigation is to

_______A. provide water for crops.

_______B. furnish water for homes.

_______C. make it easier to farm the land.

_______D. give work to more people.

63. Weeds cause greatest loss to agriculture by

_______A. providing food for prairie dogs.

_______B. providing a home for insects.

_______C. increasing erosion.

_______D. using food and moisture needed by planted crops.

64. Heavy winds will blow away less of the topsoil of cultivated land if

_______A. a different crop is planted each year.

_______B. strips of tall growing crops are planted next to row crops.

_______C. the some crop is planted all over the field.

_______D. there is lots of bare fond between rows of growing plants.

65. Over a period of years, a herd of cattle can be improved best by

_______A. feeding them alfalfa hay.

_______B. killing the slow-growing or stunted calves.

_______C. selling the calves while they are young.

_______D. using purebred bulls.

66. In an area where the soil is good but there is little rainfall the conditions are usually suited for

_______A. general farming and dairying.

_______B. stock raising and dry farming.

_______C. fruit growing and gardening.

_______D. no production of any kind.

Home Economics

Home Economics

Home Economics

Home Economics

Home Economics

Home Economics

Home Economics

Form A

HEALTH AND SAFETY

DIRECTIONS: This test is mode up of fifty items about health and safety. Each item has four possible answers. Choose the best answer in each item and place a check beside it. Check only ONE answer in each item.

1 Brushing the teeth doily is a good practice because

_______ A it makes the teeth shine.

_______ B it will prevent all tooth decay.

_______ C. it makes a dentist's service unnecessary.

_______ D. it removes food particles and germs from the teeth.

2. One reason why milk is thought to be an important food for children is that

_______ A it contains many of the things that help growth.

_______ B. it is always clean and safe to drink. .

_______ C. it is the only food a school child needs.

_______ D. it prevents typhoid fever.

3 To treat a frost bitten part of the body

_______ A. hold it near a fire.

_______ B. plunge it into hot water.

_______ C. rub it with snow.

_______ D. keep the frozen part still and gradually warm it.

4. Milk should be put in cans or bottles that have been

_______ A. washed and rinsed in cold water and put in the sunshine to dry

_______ B. washed and rinsed in cold water and kept in the house to dry.

_______ C. washed and rinsed in scalding water and kept in the house to dry.

_______ D. washed in cold water, rinsed in scalding water and put in the sunshine to dry

5 Cooked meat and cooked vegetables should be cooled and then kept

_______ A. in clean, cool, damp cellars.

_______ B. in the sunlight.

_______ C covered in a clean, cool, dry place.

_______ D. in a warm dry closet

6. The best treatment for tuberculosis is

_______ A plenty of exercise in the open air.

_______ B. a program of regular hours of work and a balanced diet

_______ C. rest in bed and plenty of wholesome food.

_______ D. the use of home remedies and store medicine.

7. Drinking water for use in the home should be

_______ A. kept in an ppen poi! on the floor by the stove.

_______ B. kept in a covered container on a table or shelf.

_______ C. kept in an open barrel on the well curb.

_______ D kept on a table or shelf in an open pail.

8. The common housefly is usually hatched in

_______ A still water and swampy places

_______ B manure and garbage piles

_______ C rivers and creeks.

_______ D houses and cellars

9 When your friend has a bad cold, the safest thing for you to do is

_______ A stay indoors and play games with him

_______ B ask him to go for a walk with you'

_______ C go to the movies with him

_______ D stay away from him

10 If you are camping and are not sure the water is free from disease germs the best thing to do is

_______ A drink no water at all

_______ B boil it.

_______ C drink coffee instead

_______ D let it stand in a covered pail until it settles

11 A child who has measles should

_______ A be kept in doors until fully recovered

_______ B go back to school as soon as he is able to get up

_______ C. go about as usual if it is a light case

_______ D go out in the cold in order to become hardy and robust.

12 If your friend has cut his foot so that the blood is spurting from it and the doctor cannot come for an hour, the best thing to do would be to

_______ A put on a tourniquet, loosening it and tightening it every ten or twenty minutes and cover wound with a clean bandage

_______ B have him sit in the sunshine with the wound uncovered so that the sun can kill germs in the cut.

_______ C have him bathe his foot in water and then cover the wound with a clean bandage

_______ D. help him to walk to the doctor as best he can

13. Mary, who was in the eighth grade, got lunch every day for her five year old brother and herself Because she knew what was best for children's health, she often got

_______ A candy bar and coffee

_______ B. fried bread and coffee

_______ C bread and potatoes

_______D. vegetable soup and bread

14 The spread of diseases such as typhoid and diarrhea have been caused by

_______ A breathing night air.

_______ B. drinking water or eating food containing germs

_______ C. working long hours,

_______ D bathing too often

15. Many people are sick for a long time

_______ A. because of a spell put on them by a witch or bad medicine man

_______ B. because of long hours of hard work.

_______ C, because they did not go to a doctor or teacher when they first began to feel sick.

_______ D. because they slept with windows open in cold weather.

16 The best way to keep the hair clean, healthy and attractive is to

_______ A. comb or brush it every night and wash it about every two weeks.

_______ B. comb or brush it once a week and wash it about once a month,

_______ C. wash it every two days.

_______ D. brush it three times a day and use a good hair tonic once a week.

17 Of the following foods, which group has the least food value?

_______ A. milk, meat, eggs.

_______ B. root vegetables and greens.

_______ C. pickles, water melons, cakes.

_______ D. beans, bread, and chili.

18 The best way to rid the hair of head lice is to

_______ A. wash the hair with strong soap and water.

_______ B. rub or comb kerosene into the hair and wash thoroughly after several hours.

_______ C, comb the hair with a fine tooth comb and then wash it thoroughly.

_______ D. wash the hair with a mild soap or shampoo and apply hair tonic.

19. Stables, stock pens and privies should be built away from the house so that

_______ A. people in the house will not be disturbed by the noise of the stock."

_______ B. the house will be free from flies and unpleasant odors.

_______ C. more space will be left for house and garden.

_______ D. the arrangement of buildings will be more attractive than when set close together.

20. Most of the common contagious diseases of childhood are caused by

_______ A. germs or "dangerous dirt" which cannot be seen except through a microscope.

_______ B. eating improper foods.

_______ C. long hours of hard work which make one very tired.

_______ D. failure to take part in the religious ceremonies of the tribe.

21, In choosing the clothes you ore going to wear to school, you should think first of all whether or not they

_______ A. are suited to the weather. ¬

_______ B. are new or old.

_______ C. are stylish.

_______ D. will show dirt.

22. Going to the dentist twice a year

_______ A. can prevent all tooth decay

_______ B can help prevent small decoyed spots in the teeth from becoming big

_______ C. makes all teeth white and straight

_______ D. saves you the trouble of brushing your teeth

23. The best way to toke care of the ears is

_______ A. clean them with a toothpick every week

_______ B. leave them entirely atone unless you have an earache

_______ C. wash and dry them carefully every day

_______ D. put cotton in your ears when you go to bed

24. The wisest thing to do to help you have a natural bowel movement every day is to

_______ A go to the toilet at a different time everyday

_______ B take regular exercise and eat balanced meals at regular hours

_______ C eat no bulky foods, such as brown bread, fruits and vegetables

_______ D take a laxative often

25. One of the best ways to prevent the spread of a contagious disease such as diphtheria is to

_______ A. keep the sick person by himself

_______ B. have everyone wear a charm so that they will not catch the disease

_______ C let the patient be with other people only when he is out-of-doors

_______ D. keep the patient in a room with other sick people.

26. Foods that have most nearly the some value as meat and so con be used best in place of of meat are

_______ A. vegetables and fruits.

_______ B. cheese, beans, and eggs.

_______ C. cereal. bread, and crackers.

_______ D rice, fried bread, and tortillas.

27. Mosquitos can be kept from growing in ponds by

_______ A. putting oil on the water.

_______ B. putting salt in the ponds.

_______ C. letting weeds-grow in the ponds.

_______ D. throwing lime in the water.

28. Tuberculosis is spread by

_______ A. mosquitos.

_______ B. careless coughing.

_______ C. sanatoriums.

_______ D. night air.

29. Stables, stock pens and privies should be built

_______ A on land that slopes away from the well and house.

_______ B on the highest spat on the grounds regardless of the direction of the run-off water.

_______ C. on any level piece of ground where it is easy to build.

_______ D. on the lowest spot on the grounds so that the run-off water may be collected

30. If oil or kerosene has caught fire, the worst thing to use to put out the fire is

_______ A salt.

_______ B. sand.

_______ C. water,

_______ D a heavy blanket.

31. Many people who have tuberculosis get well by

_______ A having the Medicine Man treat them

_______ B. taking cold baths and setting up exercises every day.

_______ C, doing hard work all day in the sunshine.

_______ D. having complete rest, wholesome food, fresh air.

32. Every person should be vaccinated to prevent smallpox.

_______ A during his first year of life and again about every five years.

_______ B. only when on epidemic of smallpox starts.

_______ C. during his fifth year and again when he is ten.

_______ D. every year of his life.

33. A person who has trouble in seeing well should

_______ A. buy ready-to-wear glasses.

_______ B. use his eyes more so as to give them plenty of exercise.

_______ C. have his eyes examined by an eye doctor.

_______ D. get along the best he can without help

34. Every person should be given "shots" against diphtheria

_______ A. when an epidemic breaks out.

_______ B. during his first year of life.

_______ C. every other year.

_______ D. when he enters school for the first time.

35. The most needed service of a public health nurse is to

_______ A. give first aid in accidents.

_______ B. make laws about how to dispose of garbage and waste.

_______ C. show people how to stay well.

_______ D. give medicine free of charge.

36. If a dog has bitten someone one should

_______ A. have the dog killed and buried at once.

_______ B. catch the dog and have him shut up and observed to see if he is mad.

_______ C. let the dog go as dog bites are not usually dangerous.

_______ D. catch the dog and tie him up so that he cannot bite anyone else.

37. The best reason why medicines from the store should not be used without advice of a doctor is because these medicines

_______ A. keep one from going to a doctor to find out what is wrong

_______ B. act as poisons .

_______ C. would make doctors unnecessary if everyone used them

_______ D cost more than the medicine the doctors order from the drugstore

38. For boys and girls the most healthful of these drinks is

_______ A. ginger ale

_______ B. coffee.

_______ C. pop.

_______ D fresh fruit juice.

39. John's eyelids were red and sore. He did the right thing when he

_______ A. rubbed them with his hands

_______ B. did his schoolwork without telling anyone that his eyes hurt

_______ C. used the same towel with others

_______ D had a doctor care for them as soon as possible

40 Dust cloths and oily rags should be kept

_______ A. wherever they will be handy for use.

_______ B hanging in a cool place.

_______ C in a pile with other cleaning rags and waste

_______ D. by a warm fire where they will be kept thoroughly dry

41 When "shots" are given to prevent catching diphtheria they

_______ A. kill all the germs in the body

_______ B. show whether one will catch the disease.

_______ C clean out waste materials in the body.

_______ D. increase the body's ability to destroy certain germs.

42. If you begin to get a sore throat, running nose, or breaking out on the skin during the school day, you should

_______ A. let it cure itself.

_______ B. go to the teacher or school nurse.

_______ C. leave school and go to bed.

_______ D. ask your friend what to do.

43. If a person has the measles and goes out before being fully recovered, he is likely to

_______ A. feel no bad effects,

_______ B. lose his hearing or eyesight.

_______ C. gain strength more rapidly.

_______ D. get a more serious sickness.

44. Garbage or other kitchen and table waste from the house should be

_______ A. kept in open pails and later fed to the pigs or chickens.

_______ B. dumped in a convenient pile and left to dry up or decay.

_______ C. kept outside in covered containers and then buried or fed to pigs or chickens

_______ D. spread out in the backyard to dry in the sun

45. Drinking water in the home should be taken from the container by

_______ A. a single dipper left in the water from which everyone drinks.

_______ B. a single dipper which is used to pour water into the individual's drinking cup

_______ C. chino or glass drinking cups only.

_______ D. a faucet or spigot near the bottom of a closed container.

46. The best location for a well is

_______ A. at the foot of the hill on which the house stands

_______ B. twenty feet from the barns or toilet.

_______ C. on ground that is higher than the surrounding land

_______ D. on any spot that is convenient to the house.

47. If you are at home alone and your clothing catches fire, you should

_______ A run as fast as you can for help.

_______ B. wrap yourself in a rug or blanket.

_______ C. remove burning clothing as quickly as possible. .

_______ D. run out to the well to get water.

48. If one receives a minor burn the best way to treat the burn is to

_______ A hold the burned place over the stove to draw out the heat of the burn.

_______ B.cover the burn with baking soda and water paste and put a bandage over it.

_______ C. pay no attention to it and allow it to heal by itself.

_______ D. paint it with iodine.

49. The temperature of heated rooms should be kept at about

_______ A. 50 degress.

_______ B. 68 degrees.

_______ C. 75 degrees.

_______ D. 82 degrees.

50. We learn in school the best ways that are known of keeping well and should practice these ways. We know that they

_______ A. will always be true.

_______ B. will not be important after we leave school.

_______ C. may change as new and better ways are found.

_______ D. will keep us from ever being sick.

 

 

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Alaska Native Knowledge Network
University of Alaska Fairbanks
PO Box 756730
Fairbanks  AK 99775-6730
Phone (907) 474.1902
Fax (907) 474.1957
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Last modified August 17, 2006