A newsletter of the Alaska Rural Systemic
Alaska Federation of Natives / University
of Alaska / National Science Foundation
Volume 8, Issue 2, March/April 2003
In This Issue:
Alaska Native Education: Past, Present
by Doreen Andersen-Spear
The following article was the keynote
presentation at the 2003 Native Educators Conference banquet.
Doreen was born in Barrow and is a student at the University
of Alaska Anchorage.
Conference participants gather on stage at the NEC banquet in Anchorage
We Iñupiaq are a nation of people occupying
the circumpolar Arctic from Siberia through Alaska, Canada and
Greenland. We share common values, language, culture and economic
systems. Our culture has enabled us to survive and flourish for
thousands of years in the Arctic where no other man or culture
could. Among our entire international Iñupiaq community,
we of the North Slope are the first Iñupiaq who have achieved
true self-government with the formation of the North Slope Borough.
We have the greatest opportunity to direct our own destiny as we
have for the past millennia.
Possibly the greatest significance of home rule is
that it enables us to regain control of the education of our children.
For thousands of years, our traditional method of socializing our
youth was the responsibility of the family and community.
From the first, visitors of the Arctic universally
commented on the warm disposition of our children. Corporal punishment
was absolutely unknown. Boys and girls began their education with
their parents and, by the time they reached their teenage years,
they had mastered the skills necessary to survive on the land.
From that time forward the youthwith their family and within
their communitydevoted their education to their intellectual
and social growth.
For 87 years, the BIA tried to destroy our culture
through the education of our children. Those who would destroy
our culture did not succeed. However, it was not without cost.
Many of our people have suffered. We all know the social ills we
endure today. Recently, I heard a member of the school personnel
say that many of our Iñupiaq children have poor self-concepts.
Is it any wonder, when the school systems fail to provide the Iñupiaq
student with experiences which would build positive self-concepts,
and the Iñupiaq language and culture are almost totally
My children and yours spend many hours in school
each day, 180 days each year for 12 years. We must have teachers
who will reflect and transmit our ideals and values. We must have
Iñupiat-centered orientation in all areas of instruction.
I do not want my children to learn that we were "discovered" by
Columbus or Vitus Bering. I do not want to hear that we were barbaric
or uncivilized. I do not want our children to feel inferior because
their language and culture are different from those of their teacher.
I do not want to see school planning surveys which list hunting,
fishing, whaling or trapping as "social" or "recreational" activities.
The land claims movement and the self-determination
attitude of the Alaska Natives were largely responsible for the
removal of the suppression of our Native languages and culture.
Bilingual instruction became the new education policy. However,
this has generally meant that we use English as our primary language
of instruction and somehow integrate Iñupiat into the curriculum.
The North Slope Borough schools must implement a
program that is bilingual and bicultural. Our children must be
taught in our Iñupiat language, with English as the secondary
language. To attain this goal, we must have teachers who are bilingual
and bicultural, knowledgeable in our Iñupiat culture and
values. This can be achieved either with instructors who are Iñupiat
or who have been trained in Iñupiat.
What can we do about this problem?
We must develop a teacher recruitment and training
program to satisfy our needs.
Foremost we must encourage and train our own
Iñupiaq to become teachers.
Recruit responsive teachers who are willing to
learn both the Iñupiat language and our cultural values.
Train teachers and offer financial incentives
to those who become proficient in our language and culture,
in addition to Iñupiat history and ideologies.
Evaluate current teachers to insure Iñupiat
educational philosophies are being implemented.
Americans are beginning to assess their own values
and finding them compatible with our own. We can now afford to
be selective in our teachers. We should select teachers who are
willing to become contributing members of the community. We must
strive to break down the barrier between community and the school.
Rather than being an integral part of the community, the schools
and teacher housing resemble a colonial fort. We must end teacher segregation.
We must rid ourselves of these temporary residents
who are here merely for financial gain. A number of teachers have
already demonstrated their willingness to live among us as neighbors
and friends. They have become permanent members of the community.
They identify with us and share our concerns.
Our teachers are the highest paid teachers in the
entire United States. What are we getting for our money? We should
be able to hire the best bilingual-bicultural teachers in the world.
We should have teachers who can teach well in Iñupiat schools.
We should have the best schools in the nation, surpassing any of
the elite prep schools in the east. We should have teachers who
earn their keep by effectively teaching our children.
I feel certain that the school board members share
my frustration and concerns. It is important to remember the lessons
of the past. In addition, we must research and master the new changes
if we are to continue to dominate the Arctic. We have demonstrated
we can survive the trespasses which have been perpetrated upon
us. We have been successful in establishing our own home-rule government.
We have been able to achieve self-government. We must strive to
insure that our borough, our city governments and our school systems
reflect our Iñupiat ideals. We are Iñupiaq.
My name is Doreen Andersen Spear. My aaka,
Rebecca Hopson, named me Maligian. My presentation this evening
was a word-for-word recital of parts of a speech my aapa,
Eben Hopson, Sr., gave on December 19, 1975 at the Teachers Affiliation
Unions contracting meeting in Barrow. His words still ring
true today. They mean so much to me. They are part of my roots
and I keep them strong and alive by remembering them.
My aapa was the founding mayor of the North
Slope Borough. He was denied a high school education by the BIA,
which only motivated him to build high schools and improve the
educational system on the North Slope. Now there is a middle school
in Barrow named after him and a life-size statue with an inscription
that reads, "Education is the key to success. Do not let anything
stand in your way in your pursuit of education."
Im a product of a racially mixed marriage.
My dad, Ralph Andersen, is Yupik and Danish. My mom, Flossie Hopson
Andersen is Iñupiat and English. I dont know much
about my Yupik heritage, and I know nothing about my Danish and
English roots. I claim my Alaska Native heritage. Barrow is the
only home I know. I was born and raised there.
I have seen our Iñupiat culture start to lose
its strength within the younger generations. Living among Iñupiat
Elders is a life experience and to learn anything of my Iñupiat
culture is dear to my heart. I do not speak Iñupiaq but
this does not discourage me to learn more. As I grow older, my
desire to acquire the knowledge of my Elders also grows. I only
hope the younger generations also consider strengthening our culturekeeping
our roots strongas a priority.
From my earliest childhood memories my parents stressed
the importance of education. They are both college graduates and
are my role models. My mom and dad enrolled me in early childhood
education when I was four years old. They also taught me the need
to know my family, my culture and my roots. I know they are proud
My mom and dad encouraged me to participate in bilingual
and bicultural activities while I was growing up. Mom taught me
some of my Iñupiaq language at home. I learned how to sing
and motion dance in the Iñupiat way. But this does not make
me any less proud of my other cultural roots.
I am only one person and I cannot represent those
who chose not to learn about their Native traditions and Native
heritage. I observed my peers who chose not to participate actively
in bilingual and bicultural classes, dances and community activities.
I was always curious why many parents did not encourage their children
to learn their Native culture.
I like the theme for this conferenceKeeping
Our Roots Strongbecause it made me really think hard about
my roots and my generation in the context of education.
The formal education of Alaska Natives is a classic
example of a clash between cultures. The values of the Western
educational system of speaking, reading and writing in the English
language and studying Western history, concepts and ideas, conflict
with the values, beliefs and traditions of Alaska Natives. For
generations, it was more important for our people to gather and
harvest subsistence foods than it was to learn how to read and
Educating Alaska Natives in the ways of Western society
is a continuing problem today. Contributing factors include the
lack of Alaska Native teachers, inadequate criteria and delivery
of bilingual and bicultural curricula and students who are not
taught their Alaska Native cultures at home.
Many of our people suffered physically and emotionally
from being forced to not practice their cultures in school. They
suffered corporal punishment for speaking their Native language
and personal humiliation and embarrassment for not being able to
speak the English language fluently and write it correctly.
Some Native students also had to leave their homes
to attend BIA boarding schools when they were only small children
in their middle school years. I cant even imagine what that
must have been like. At the boarding schools, attempts were made
to integrate them into the American mainstream with military living
conditions and military rules. Many slowly lost touch with important
parts of their traditional ways and beliefs and many lost their
Natives who were fortunate enough to complete their
education returned home and had children of their own. Their situation
was a frustrating dilemma. On one hand, they were not fully accepted
by their people because they no longer spoke their language or
were able to practice their cultural ways. On the other hand, they
were not accepted by Western society because of their skin color.
While many wanted to teach their children the ways and traditions
of their ancestors, they simply could not.
My generation is facing a similar dilemma and problems
with cultural identity. We feel pressures to advance and succeed
in Western ways, yet keep solid footing in and strengthen our cultural
roots. We face cultural identity issues and hard decisions.
Many, like me, are from mixed cultures. Which culture
are we supposed to choose for the foundation of our lives? Is it
wrong to choose one over another? Which roots do we keep strong
without neglecting others? Will we be accused of favoring one culture
over another when, in fact, combined together they make us who
we are? Those are not new questions and there are no easy solutions.
Your challenge as educators is to broaden our minds and vision
to help us find answers.
The main barrier between the younger generations
and our traditional cultures is an educational system that completely
satisfies our cultural well being. I was involved in bilingual
and bicultural studies and activities throughout elementary and
high school. My formal education has led me to college, but I still
lack the cultural knowledge of my ancestors.
In order for the younger generations to be great
leaders, we must strive to be flexible enough to live in two worlds.
We need to seriously consider our cultures to be the most important
parts of our lives. We need the security to make important decisions
to build the foundation for our lives. We need to pursue our educational
dreams not only in the Western way, but to also gain the cultural
knowledge and understanding of who we are and where we came from.
We need to know what our roots are and we need to keep them alive
so they can grow stronger. We need your help.
Thank you very much for inviting me to speak here
this evening. Thank you, quyanakpak!
Commentary on "Future Alaska
(featured in Sharing Our Pathways,
Vol. 8, Issue 1 by Cathy Rexford)
by Nels Anderson, Jr.
My name is Nels Anderson, Jr. of Dillingham. I read
the article, "Future Alaska Native Educators," by Cathy
Rexford, in the Jan/Feb 2003 issue of Sharing Our Pathways. I enjoyed
the article and it prompted me to comment and ask some questions
that I think people throughout Alaska should be considering.
The article says that 459 out of a total of 8,206
public school teachers are of Alaska Native or American Indian
descent. If my math serves me correctly, that is about 5.59%. That
is a very sad statistic. That leads me to ask how many Alaska Natives
we have working in the university system? I have always felt, to
the greatest extent legally possible, that our institutions should
reflect the makeup of the population served. One of many places
where we, Alaska Natives, exceed our percentage of the total Alaska
population is in our jails. Another place where we exceed our percentage
of the total population is in our dropout statistics in our schools
What is the teacher retention rate in our Regional
Educational Attendance Areas (REAAs) and rural and remote schools
as compared to urban schools? How many of our schools aides,
cooks, janitors and maintenance personnel are Alaska Natives? How
many Alaska Native professors and administrators do we have at
the University of Alaska? How many of our schools across the state,
especially our REAAs and rural and remote schools, have Alaska
Native principals, financial managers or superintendents? How many
Alaska Natives are there on the University of Alaska Board of Regents
at this time? How many of our REAAs are locally controlled by Native
school board members?
If what I suspect is truethat most of the REAAs
are locally controlled by predominantly Alaska Native school board
members, thenwhy are we not using that power to achieve the
goals and objectives identified by the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative?
Shouldnt we be making sure that our REAAs are using their
power to move toward academic excellence as envisioned by AKRSI?
It would appear to be an ideal strategy to utilize
the resources of the state of Alaska to move toward good learning
principles. Rather than trying to reinvent the Alaska education
wheel, we should mainstream our values and ideas of what is good
learning into the school districts we now have at our disposal.
We should be working very closely with the University of Alaska
to adopt and implement sound policies that improve our delivery
of education, increase teacher retention rates and reduce our dropout
numbers in our schools and university.
If indeed Alaska Natives control many of the boards
of our REAAs and rural and remote school districts, then why cant
those boards assert their power and authority and adopt the necessary
policies that will move them toward training AND hiring more Alaska
Native and American Indian teachers and administrators? Cant
our school boards collectively develop a "memorandum of understanding" with
the University of Alaska to join forces to make sure that our future
teacher and administrative personnel are recruited, trained and
hired from our Alaska Native teacher aide and substitute teaching
pool in our REAAs and rural and remote school districts?
We should support any existing university programs
that are taking our teacher aides and substitute teachers and moving
them into our classrooms as full-time accredited teachers. If necessary,
those programs should be expanded to move ALL of our teacher aides,
tutors, mentors and substitutes into a certified training program
that will allow them to become accredited, certified associate
teachers with a higher pay scale. We should then encourage these
associate teachers to continue their education to get them full
accreditation and become full-time certified teachers. This strategy
should be encouraged and pushed aggressively. Most of this can
be done by our university distance education delivery system. In
addition, our university and school boards should be grooming and
training future administrators in a similar program.
Are our school boards and the university insisting
on teaching the basics and adopting a teaching plan that will help
our students excel academically, understand who they are, learn
about how they fit into our overall Alaska society and reduce their
drop out rates?
I believe that our REAAs and rural and remote school
boards have the necessary legal authority needed to assert their
power to make sure that we have a public school system that is
teaching our students the basicsthat is learning to read
at the end of the second grade; reading to learn by the end of
the fourth grade; mastering math basics of adding, subtracting,
multiplying and dividing by the end of the fifth grade; having
a fundamental understanding of basic scientific principles by the
end of the eighth grade and, in addition, having a rudimentary
understanding of Alaska Native history and
Native cultures within the context of Alaska history
by the end of the eighth grade. Finally, we should be developing
the necessary strategies that will reduce the number of dropouts
in our schools and university.
In summary, I think that the article "Future
Alaska Native Educators" is very good and should be expanded
to include the following: It should examine the statistics on dropout
and teacher retention rates in our schools. It should also look
at how many Native principals, superintendents, financial officers,
teacher aides, tutors, mentors and substitute teachers we have
in our REAA, rural and remote village school districts. It should
look at what the University of Alaska dropout rates are for Native
students and see how many Alaska Native university professors and
administrators we have.
It should review the existing teacher training program
we have at the University of Alaska to see if improvements can
be made that will increase the number of Alaska Natives being trained
from the teacher aide and substitute teaching pool found in our
REAAs and rural and remote school districts.
And finally, after that is done, we should make sure
that all educators and news media across the state get a copy of
this article to wake people up so that we can exert the power we
have to make the changes we need to have our students excel in
our schools, university and university rural campuses.
Thank you for that great article and giving me a
chance to express some of my views about education in Alaska.
Fourth Annual ANSES State Science
by Alan Dick
The fourth annual ANSES State Science Fair, hosted
by AKRSI, was held at Camp Carlquist on the weekend of January
31 to February 2. Projects arrived from every corner of the state
and a total of 21 competed intensely for the right to move on to
On Saturday, before Sundays ANSES State Fair,
students and chaperones scurried around Anchorage and Eagle River
in the second year of the "Junkyard Wars of Science Fairs." At
9 a.m. teams of participants were given maps, $50, the set of rules
and an assignment: plan and carry out a science project having
to do with "campfires." The excitement level was high
and by 6 p.m., eight teams had poster boards and a completed experiment
ready for the judges. This lighthearted event gave the students
a chance to interact with the judges and each other before the
big event on Sunday. It also forced them to utilize science skills,
map skills, team building skills and ingenuity in developing a
project in less than nine hours. Students also had to spend time
at the Alaska Native Heritage Center.
Two of the ANSES State Fair projects have been nominated
for an International Science Fair in Beijing, China. There is no
assurance that they will go, but students worked in schools until
midnight preparing their projects for consideration. It represents
an opportunity of a lifetime for the young people involved. AKRSI
folks are holding their breath, hoping we can send students to
carry our model of relevant, village-based science projects to
The ANSES State Science Fair participants and winners
were honored in the noon luncheon at the Native Educators Conference
banquet in the Sheraton Hotel on Monday, February 3. Several of
the winners were interviewed by Channel 2 News. The broadcast that
evening was inspiring.
The Imaginarium played an important part in the operation
this year. Students handled reptiles and participated in liquid
nitrogen experiments while other projects were being judged. There
wasnt an idle moment the whole weekend. Staff watched genuine
friendships being made and strengthened, personal transformation
taking place and science becoming a deeper part of young peoples lives.
To observe the process makes the hundreds of hours of preparation
worthwhile. The Imaginarium folks will likely oversee the operation
next year as AKRSI intentionally fades out, but the event will
continue to create an arena where the students are the show and
science the theme.
Alan Dick Begins New Venture
After seven years of writing books, curriculum materials
and SOP articles for AKRSI, Alan Dick has started his own small
publishing business operating out of Lime Village. The intent of
the business is to enable other Alaskans to get their message or
story into the hands of the public.
This business is geared towards the first-time author
who knows little or nothing about publishing. Alan says he can
step into and out of the sequence required to print books, giving
the author the opportunity to save money by doing some of the tasks,
yet Alan will help the new authors cross the hurdles that have
kept hundreds of wonderful Alaskan stories from the public eye.
Alan has been a successful author and now wants to share the experience
with other Alaskans, particularly those from villages.
For more information, email him at email@example.com and
check the SV Publishing website http://www.svpublishing.com. The
website describes all the options available to first time authors.
The AKRSI staff wish to express our appreciation to Alan for his
dedicated efforts on behalf of village science, camps and fairs
over the past seven years. His ability to bring science alive for
students in just about any setting has been an inspiration to teachers
throughout Alaska, and his Village Science and Village Math curriculum
resources are some of the most popular items in the ANKN curriculum
collection. We wish Alan the best in his new ventures and hope
to find ways to keep him involved in his "calling" as
the Science Wizard of Alaska.
Youth Panel Workshop at 2003 Native Educators
On February 3, 2003 a workshop entitled Youth Perspectives
on Education sparked the interest and enthusiasm of Elders and
educators of all ages. A small group from the Future Alaska Native
Educator Network presented ideas, concerns and solutions on Native
education issues. These young college students are Ava Vent, Crystal
Swetzof, Quentin Simeon and Mariah Sakeagak. In response to the
requests of many conference participants, here are the youth comments
and collective ideas for action.
Presented by Ava Vent
Hello my name is Ava Vent and I am a Koyukon Athabascan
from Huslia. My parents are Warner and Alberta Vent. My grandparents
are Robert and Mary Vent of Huslia, and Joseph and Celia Beetus
In the fall of 1999 I graduated from Mt. Edgecumbe
High school in Sitka, Alaska and then moved to Phoenix, Arizona
to attend Grand Canyon University. In the spring of 2001 I transferred
to Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colorado for one semester. Then
I finally decided that attending UAF would better help me in becoming
a successful elementary teacher in Alaskas diverse society.
This is my junior year in college. I will graduate with my bachelor
of arts degree in the spring of 2005 and then I plan to further
my studies with a masters degree in education.
There are many different ideas on what can be done
to improve the success rates in the education of Alaska Native
students. Over the last two years I have heard so many excellent
ideas on how to better educate the students in both rural and urban
areas of Alaska. Some of those alternatives are that parents need
to take part in their childrens education. Teachers need
to come up with exciting new ways to combine the class curriculum
with our cultural values. We all need to come together and be positive
role models for our younger generation. We need to lower our village
and urban substance abuse problems so that the Alaska Native dropout
rate as well as the suicide rate will go down. Most importantly
teachers, parents, tutors and school employees should get to know
the students inside the class as well as outside.
First of all, Alaska Native students success
relies heavily on the home environment. Parental interaction is
very crucial in the development of a childs moral and traditional
values. Parents need to show love and support for their child all
the way until they graduate with their degree. Parents need to
spend more time helping their children with their homework and
appreciating their accomplishments as well as helping them fix
their mistakes. Parents need to find an effective way of teaching
their children to be responsible early in a childs life.
Something as easy as helping them make cookies or letting them
do simple tasks on their own can help them learn to be responsible.
Another idea to improve success rates of Alaska Native
students is for teachers to find effective ways to correlate the
class curriculum with traditional values so that the students can
find more ways to relate to and better understand their schoolwork.
Moreover, there are many curriculums already in our schools that
involve traditional cultural values. By listening to my mother,
grandparents and my Aunt Catherine Attla, Ive heard hundreds
of old stories about our ancestors and how it used to be in the
villages long ago. My grandpa Joe often tells stories of when he
was younger, and a lot of them ended with a certain moral point
which effects the choices people make. These sorts of stories later
effect childrens moral values all through adulthood.
Other ways to include cultural activities in the
curriculum that I can think of include: making traditional fish
traps, building sleds or snow shoes, making birch baskets, sewing
with beads and moose hide, picking berries, ice fishing, camping
and many other cultural activities.
A negative factor that affects Alaska Native students
is alcohol and substance abuse. Alcohol and substance abuse is
very high in Alaska, and we need to come together and try to end
this problem by coming up with alternatives. As long as the alcoholism
rate among Alaska Natives is high, the dropout and suicide rates
will also increase. I have lost many friends and family to alcohol
and suicide and this motivates me to try to find ways to give the
Native youth alternatives other than alcohol and drugs. Most importantly
we, as students, teachers and community members, need to get to
know each other.
I went to elementary and middle school in Huslia
until the eighth grade. Therefore, I can think of some ways to
bring a community together in order to gain students trust and
respect. If you plan to teach or are teaching in a village with
people you dont know, then get to know them. Participate
in fun activities with the students during your free time. For
example you can go fishing, sledding, check snares or traps, go
for a snowmachine trip or even go on a picnic. By doing these activities
and getting to know the students as well as the people of the community,
the students will feel comfortable talking to you and you can gain
their trust and respect. Moreover, the teacher will feel like less
of an outcast and feel comfortable with the people of the community.
There are teachers in the past who have gained my
respect and helped me understand my schoolwork to the fullest.
These teachers include Velma Schaffer from Allakaket, Gertie Esmailka
of Huslia and Sharon Strick from Ruby. Helpful educators at Mt.
Edgecumbe High School included my algebra teacher, Gary Jarvill,
and the school counselor, Bob Love.
Velma Schaffer used to bring some of my friends and
me out for a snowmachine ride to check her rabbit snares. We used
to stand on the back of her Yukon dog sled and see how long we
could drag and then pull ourselves back up. She taught us how to
set up rabbit snares and how often to check on them.
Gertie Esmailka used to work so hard with our class
when we practiced for Christmas plays. She also used to bring us
out on lots of field trips for schoolwork. We used to go out and
pick cranberries for cranberry-orange bread. We made the bread
for the parents when they came in to pick up our mid-term grades.
Sharon Strick brought out my artistic side by showing
me how to make different but interesting arts and craftsfor
example she showed us how to make natural paper. She also taught
us how to make beads with Fimo clay that we cooked in the oven.
Gary Jarvill had a very amusing personality that helped us understand
algebra in a fun way. Mr. Bob Love was a big help with my future
plans after high school.
All these teachers had something in common, which
was their involvement in our daily lives as well as in our education.
I stated just a few of the unlimited solutions that we can practice
in order to help our Native students succeed in Alaskas changing
economy and society.
The government also has a big impact on the education
of our Native students. Politics and power have a heavy influence
on the education of Alaska Native students. When it comes right
down to it, the education of Alaska Native youth depends on the
government who has the power to decide how much funding should
be spent on Alaskas education system. Therefore, the government
has the resources which are crucial in pulling together Alaskas
I like to think education is like knowledge, it only
gets stronger and more powerful as it grows over time. Think about
it, we have come so far in developing our education system since
the early 1930s and 40s. Back then students were attending school
in the village church, if they even had one. For example in Hughes,
which is located along the Koyukuk River, my mother remembers that
the classes were in a local mans home up until the missionaries
built a church. These students and teachers could not even understand
each other. Moreover, they all had to share a class, in which some
students were older siblings of one another.
I think about how difficult and frustrating it must
have been for these teachers and their students. They must have
been strongly motivated because those students are now adults who
speak fluent English as well as their own heritage language. This
is thanks to their motivation and our growing education system.
A few of the aspects that helped our educational system so far
include bilingual programs, cross-cultural programs and immersion
programs. Most importantly, everyone helps our education system
by simply knowing that we all have cultural differences and that
we are trying to find a middle ground with each other. This is
a crucial first step to helping education develop successfully
for the Alaska Native youth. Education is a very timely topic in
which everyone needs to be a part in order to ensure that the younger
generations of Alaska will be successful.
We need to leave this conference knowing that we
can help Alaskas Native students succeed in preschool, kindergarten,
grade school, high school and college. Some of the ideas I have
touched upon to help Alaska Native students succeed are: pay attention
to your childrens education as well as their lives; teachers
need to accommodate their curriculum in a way that the students
can easily learn and understand and finally, all school staff,
students and the community need to build trust, respect and comfort
with one another. Ana Basee and have a wonderful evening!
Presented by Mariah Sakeagak: The Importance of
Native Role Models for Students
My experience at Barrow High School:
Teachers and instructors were mostly non-Native
except for the bilingual teachers.
Students need to take notice that they, too,
can get a degree in teaching if they set there mind and heart
I have always wanted to be a teacher ever since I
was just a young child, and to now realize the importance of having
Native educators makes me want to work even harder to complete
my degree. To have little children come to you and tell you that "they
want to be like you and go to college and be a teacher" always
warms my heart.
I have mentors on the North Slope who are in fact
bilingual teachers; they have shared with me the importance of
getting an education so I can go home to Barrow one day and be
a mentor for other Native students.
My experience with college/higher education:
Often students who have graduated from a rural area
are not familiar with what is outside of their community, mostly
because of the outrageous prices on airfare. When they do get out
of their community to attend college I think its important to have
someone, perhaps a Native educator to share with them the survival
skills beforehand. I say Native because I know from my experience
to have someone familiar nearby to share their ideas and experiences
made it more comfortable for me.
Many rural students havent lived elsewhere
so they have a rural perspective; to have someone there who has
been there, like myself, would help them understand what the rest
of the world is like. When a non-Native shares with you what they
experienced, their perspective on life is often different because
they have grown up in a city or Outside, and they havent
experienced what it was like to grow up in a village.
For me entering college, I was very shy and I did
not usually ask questions about anything even though I was confused.
It wasnt until last semester that I started opening my mind
and my mouth! I was tired of not sharing my ideas, because usually
they were good ideas. Mostly I was shy because I was the only Native
in class, but this is not stopping me anymore. From here on out
I am going to voice my opinion. If you have something to say, dont
be shy like I was. Let people know what you think.
With this I know I will be able to complete my degree,
GO HOME, and be a role model for others. I will be one of the Native
educators who encourages other students to go out and want to be
teachers! And if not be a teacher, be something, because as long
as you set your mind to it and work hard, you can achieve anything!
Presented by Quentin Simeon
The foundation for all stable relationships is based
on trust and the truth. In order to educate our children, we must
teach them the truth. However, in order to reach our children we
must first be trusted by them. And to get our children to trust
the teachers, the teachers must be trusted by the community. The
approach is threefold. The first concerns the method of teaching.
We must apply the knowledge to our students, connecting them with
the information and the world around them. Make them feel as though
they have a voice and a story worthy of being told. In other words,
teach from the world they come from, not just the world of the
Europeans. However, the Western or European world is not going
to disappear, so we must implement a training course designed to
educate our people about the differences and similarities of and
between the Western culture and ours.
The second aspect that relates to the first is what
tools should we use to teach our children or what books are we
going to teach them from? Should we write our history from our
own perspective or settle for the Western documentation? I prefer
the former. But if we choose to use Western books, I suggest that
we at least screen them for certain biases.
The final portion to an approach is the teachers
and their relationship with the community. I would prefer to have
Native teachers everywhere, but that is unlikely, so we must find
a way to acculturate the teachers to our communities, as well as
accept them as members of our families. Make them feel welcome,
not like a stranger, then we will keep our children out of danger.
With trust, we can accomplish a lot. It doesnt really matter
if we are Native or not. The children are importantafter
all thats all we got. Once we, the educators, earn their
trust our children will eagerly get on the bus.
Plan of Action
After the presentations, some collective brainstorming
and small group discussions yielded great ideas. Everyone in the
workshop participated. Listed below are some of the proposed actions:
Highlight successful programs such as immersion
schools across the state and use them as role models.
Allow communities to influence curriculum.
Have schools recognize and incorporate cultural
Use student panels such as this as a component
for teacher in-services.
Role models in our communities need to present
in the classrooms.
Role models in each region need to be identified
and interviewed by the students.
It doesnt take much to encourage young
people if they are able to see for themselves first hand the
accomplishments their people have made. This could give them
a boost in furthering their education.
Community leaders past and present should encourage
youth to become future leaders and role models.
Create booklets of Native mentors from throughout
the past 50 years so children see the accomplishments people
have made AND USE THEM IN OUR SCHOOLS!
Write letters to state and national legislators
to call their attention to the problems No Child Left Behind
is creating for our schools.
Publish ideas from this workshop in Sharing Our
UAF Summer Program in Cross-Cultural Studies for
The Center for Cross-Cultural Studies, the Alaska
Rural Systemic Initiative, the Alaska Staff Development Network
and the UAF Summer Sessions invite educators from throughout Alaska
to participate in a series of two- and three-credit courses focusing
on the implementation of the Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive
Schools. The courses may be taken individually or as a six-, nine-
or twelve-credit sequence. The courses may be used to meet the
state "multicultural education" requirement for licensure
and/or they may be applied to graduate degree programs at UAF.
Rural Academy for Culturally Responsive Schools
May 2731, Fairbanks
The five-day intensive Rural Academy, sponsored by
the Alaska Staff Development Network, the Alaska Rural Systemic
Initiative and the UAF Northwest Campus, will consist of the following
Each enrollee will be able to participate in
two out of seven two-day workshops that will be offered demonstrating
how the Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools
are being implemented in communities throughout rural Alaska.
Two panel sessions will be offered in which participants
will be able to hear firsthand from key educational practitioners
and policymakers from throughout the state.
A day-long field trip will allow participants
to meet and interact with Elders and other key people and visit
sites in the Nome area.
Participants will share successful strategies
and programs from throughout the state.
Participants will have the option to complete
a follow-up project relevant to their own work situation.
Instructor: Ray Barnhardt and workshop presenters
Credit options: ED 695, Rural Academy for
Culturally Responsive Schools (2 cr.)
ED/CCS 613, Alaska Standards for Culturally Resp. Sch. (3cr.)
EDP 110, Introduction to Para-Professional Education (2 cr.)
Cross-Cultural Orientation Program for Teachers
June 220, 2003
The Center for Cross-Cultural Studies and UAF Summer
Sessions will be offering the annual Cross-Cultural Orientation
Program (X-COP) for teachers beginning on June 2, 2003 and running
through June 20, 2003, including a week (June 714) out at
the Old Minto Cultural Camp on the Tanana River with Athabascan
Elders from the village of Minto. The program is designed for teachers
and others who wish to gain some background familiarity with the
cultural environment and educational history that makes teaching
in Alaska, particularly in rural communities, unique, challenging
and rewarding. In addition to readings, films, guest speakers and
seminars during the first and third weeks of the program, participants
will spend a week in a traditional summer fish camp under the tutelage
of Athabascan Elders who will share their insights and perspectives
on the role of education in contemporary rural Native communities.
Those who complete the program will be prepared to enter a new
cultural and community environment and build on the educational
foundation that is already in place in the hearts and minds of
the people who live there.
Instructor: Ray Barnhardt and Old Minto Elders
Credit option: ED 610, Education and Cultural
Processes (3 cr.)
Native Ways of Knowing
June 23July 11, 2003
The third course available in the cross-cultural
studies series is a three-week seminar focusing on the educational
implications of "Native ways of knowing." The course
will examine teaching and learning practices reflected in indigenous
knowledge systems and how those practices may be incorporated into
the schooling process. Examples drawn from the work of the Alaska
Rural Systemic Initiative and the Alaska Native Knowledge Network
will be shared with participants.
Instructor: Oscar Kawagley, Ph.D.
Credit option: ED/ANS 461, Native Ways of
Knowing (3 cr.)
CCS 608, Indigenous Knowledge Systems (3 cr.)
For further information about the Rural Academy,
contact the UAF Center for Cross-Cultural Studies at 474-1902 or
the Alaska Staff Development Network at 2204 Douglas Highway, Suite
100, Douglas, Alaska 99824, phone (907) 364-3801, fax (907) 364-3805,
e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org or go to the ASDN web site at http://www.asdn.org.
For further information on the other courses offered
in Fairbanks, please contact UAF Summer Sessions office at (907)
474-7021 or on the web at http://www.uaf.edu/summer.
Indigenous Peoples and Justice Initiative
One of the key goals of the University of Saskatchewans
Framework for Planning is "meeting the needs of Aboriginal
people." The university has restated on a number of occasions
its commitment to pursue this aim through expanding program options
which are attractive and relevant for Aboriginal people.
The Indigenous Peoples and Justice Initiative (IPJI)
constitutes an effort to further this important goal by providing
students with opportunities to explore indigenous knowledge and "ways
of knowing" and to build their disciplinary expertise in relation
to the justice theme.
The IPJI arises out of the need to address issues
of justice as they relate to indigenous peoples and what the Supreme
Court of Canada has termed a "crisis in the criminal justice
system." It evolves from the premise that there are different
viewpoints regarding justice and that the indigenous viewpoint,
grounded in indigenous knowledge and "ways of knowing," needs
to be incorporated into programs and courses at the University
It is the hope of the framers of the IPJI that by
re-articulating traditional knowledge and teaching regarding justice
as framed by its bearers, the Elders of various Aboriginal communities,
new partnerships and improved relationships of respect and understanding
may form between these communities and the university.
The IPJI operates within a framework of values that
includes mutual respect, obligation and responsibility. The purpose
of the academic programs is to enhance understanding between Aboriginal
and non-Aboriginal peoples with regard to the requirements of justice
in todays world.
The failure of Canadas criminal justice system
is a critical aspect of the lives of Aboriginal peoples that is
addressed by the IPJI. It also examines the social, cultural, economic,
political, institutional and organizational features of both Aboriginal
and non-Aboriginal communities that are the causes of crime, assimilation,
exclusion and community breakdown.
Indigenous Knowledge: Capstone Courses
The IPJI will have a curriculum that focuses on indigenous
knowledge relating to justice, incorporating different world views
about justice. The curriculum will introduce instruction in indigenous
knowledge and teachings into the university setting, and will involve
The third year courses are:
IK 301.3 Indigenous Knowledge: Methodologies.
Examination and de-construction of the existing knowledge
base on indigenous peoples. The purpose will be to study indigenous
IK 302.3 Indigenous Knowledge: Theory and Practice.
Students will examine oral traditions and histories
and begin to develop an understanding of how to work and think
within these traditions and histories.
IK 401.6 Indigenous Knowledge: Concepts of Justice.
This is the fourth-year capstone course. The study
of issues associated with indigenous knowledge with a particular
focus on concepts of justice. Students will be introduced to advanced
substantive concepts and the process of indigenous justice, social
order, freedom and social control.
The underlying theme of these capstone courses and
academic programs will be built upon, but not confined to, the
study and remedying of the application and enforcement of criminal
justice system rules, "law" and justice on the Aboriginal
and non-Aboriginal members of society.
What can the Indigenous Peoples and Justice Initiative
The IPJI provides an opportunity for Aboriginal and
non-Aboriginal students to study in a chosen discipline, while
focusing on issues surrounding indigenous peoples and justice.
It establishes three new degree programs in law, public administration
and sociology. These programs will draw upon the teachings, values
and traditions available through the ethical sharing of indigenous
knowledge, experiences and expertise. The programs will be conducted
in a way that affirms the values of mutual obligation, mutual respect
For more information, contact:
Administrative Coordinator, IPJI
Native Law Centre
University of Saskatchewan
101 Diefenbaker Place
Phone: (306) 966-6246
Fax: (306) 966-6207
Region: Science Fair
by Hilary Seeger, Willie Nelson and Erling Ursin
Astudent walks into the presentation room with sweat
pouring down his brow from all the anxiety and excitement running
through his body. Adrenaline shoots through his veins like a jet
roaring off the runway. Silence fills the room until the young
scientist is ready to present. The judges surround him and start
asking questions that the student must answer to the best of his
knowledge. Minutes seem like hours, but when it is all said and
done everyone, even the judges, come out of the room smiling.
On January 2224, selected students from Chiniak,
Danger Bay, Larsen Bay, Old Harbor and Ouzinkie came to Port Lions
with science experiments to compete in the Fifth Annual Rural Regional
Science Fair. The projects were judged on cultural knowledge by
Elders and the scientific method by Kodiak scientists.
The fair was started by the Alaska Rural Systemic
Initiative to recognize the connection between Native ways of knowing
and Western science. Not only is it a great academic opportunity
and a way to learn the scientific method, but as longtime coordinator
Teri Schneider notes, "We are also seeing that the students
are connecting their learning inside school with their learning
However, students learned more than just science
this year. In addition to creating their own science fair projects,
high school students in Port Lions were given another assignment:
to host this years science fair. They had to create information
packets, dinner menus, plan evening activities, emergency water
backup plans, schedules and more. "So many times people just
take for granted that (Science Fair) just happens and that there
is no planning that goes into it. So thats when we turned
it over to the students," said teacher and principal Louis
Martinez. This is all based on a survival class taught by Martinez
and Donald Heckert. "We started talking about what it meant
to run a shelter and so forth and we saw the science fair coming
up and thought, what a perfect opportunity!"
"I was happy when I heard that we would be organizing
the science fair because we would get more interaction with the
other kids," said Crystal Bartelson, a Port Lions student
organizer. "I learned how hard it is for teachers and people
arranging this (event). It is a lot of work!"
Young scientists in this years science fair
ranged from third grade all the way up to juniors in high school.
Projects included parabolic dishes, mixing colors and weather,
to more cultural projects such as Kodiak ducks, Alutiiq mens
headwear and bow and drill techniques.
"The quality of this years science fair
projects were just outstanding!" said scientific judge Patrick
Brady Travis project on what types of soil
erode quicker when introduced to water won grand prize for being
best in both science and culture. "I learned a lot from this
experience and I hope it will open doors for me in the future," says
Travis. He now wants to get his commercial drivers license and
work for the city of Chiniak, his hometown. Brady will be competing
in the statewide Alaska Science and Engineering Fair April 46
First-place winner in the category of science, Ben
Christman also of Chiniak, played different genres of music to
chickens to see the effect on their egg laying production. He will
be attending the statewide Alaska Science and Engineering Fair
in April as well.
Old Harbor students Fawn Chya and Barbara Nestic
won first place in the category of culture for their project on
smoked fish. They tested different types of wood for smoking. They
attended the Alaska Native Science and Engineering Society Fair
held February 23 in Anchorage.
In addition to the science fair projects, there were
workshops available to keep the students entertained as well as
teach them more about how enjoyable science can be.
School district curriculum specialist, Sally Wilker,
organized numerous science activities including dissection
of owl pellets, color exploration and creation of polymers. While
third through eighth graders dissected the small balls of fur and
bones, it was clear they were learning; "There are two skulls
here!" and "I found its ribs!" are just a couple
of student exclamations. She presented the polymers to the high
school students. A polymer is made of many particles or molecules
that form into a long flexible chain. The students made polymers
out of Elmers glue, water and Borax.
Wilker also presented color explorations to the kindergarten
through second grades; they used the three primary colors to make
the secondary colors with Play-Doh.
Don Heckert, Port Lions math and science teacher,
showed the chemical reactions of acids and bases using soda and
peppermints. Students dropped peppermints into the bottle of soda,
and the soda made a spout out of the top of the bottle. They were
amazed by the reaction and learned the properties of acids and
bases in the process.
Another presentation was put together by the Imaginarium.
This family science center located in Anchorage provides hands-on
experiments, assemblies and other scientific presentations to communities
all over the state. This is the second year they have been part
of the Regional Science Fair in Port Lions.
This year Amy VonDiest from the Imaginarium set up
interactive exhibits in the Port Lions Tribal Building. Students
and community members were able to test out different science activities
such as solar power demos, fiber optic cables and laser lights.
"Thinking about the week," Louis Martinez
said, "there were a few kinks, but thats because it
was our first (student) run (science fair). I think we can look
at this overall and say that it was really successful."
Region: Heritage, Love and Science
by Wilma Osborne, Eskimo Heritage Program Specialist,
When I walked into the Eskimo Heritage office in
Nome, it felt like I had come home. In the recordings stored in
this office live voices, letters, words, ideas, knowledge, advice,
struggle, tragedyso many lives captured by the technology.
Memories surround me as though I am reviewing my life before I
die. I felt loved. People before me wanted me to know things from
how to hunt and take care of game to old wives tales. And
another group of people took the time and care to document, transcribe
and store this information. That is love indeed. It allows me to
understand my place in the world as a woman raised in the Arctic.
It gives me security. It allows me to know what is expected of
me in the context of this land and people and carry myself forward
There is a question that Western science has of humanity
in relation to the rest of the universe. Where do we fit in? What
separates us? Such is the task of a scientist.
It is peoples blazing imaginations that send
probes thousands of miles out of our atmosphere and into other
planetary orbitsthe same questions drive individuals, even
groups of people on quests. So let us ask the question, how is
Heritage is something handed downthe rights,
freedoms and burdens as a result of being in a certain place and
time. It is intellectual property, knowledge and imagination. People
have applied themselves here for a very long time; they know how
to deal with stress specific to the North and have passed along
lifelong, scientific information about weather, animals, land and
sea, as well as how to form lasting, meaningful relationships with
each other and everything around them, including the past and future.
Native people thrive because they ask these questions
of their place in the universe, but heritage is an equal partner
which gives those queries beautiful, intense meaning. Western science
is in its infancy and has tended to separate humans from the universe.
This is beginning to change. Indigenous people all over the world
have immense understanding and wisdom to contribute to the spiritual "coming
of age" of Western science and allow it to blossom into something
we see merely as a ray today.
Heritage is the imagination we give to science that
makes life more than worthwhile. It is through our heritage that
love is given to scientific knowledge and makes life worth living,
worth sharing, worth protecting, worth giving.
2003 Summer Institute for Educators
June 1025, 2003
In communities around Alaska you hear comments like: "The
weather is strange and unpredictable" or "Sea ice patterns
are changing." These comments reflect Alaskans observations
and concerns about the effects of global change on their communities
and lives. Join educators from around the state as they:
learn to use local/traditional knowledge as a
basis for environmental studies;
use the GLOBE* curriculum to enhance student
science skills and understanding;
learn some of the latest teaching techniques
and current best practices in science education;
address science, math and cultural standards
share ideas, strategies and perspectives.
Anyone working with students is welcome. We are especially
encouraging teams consisting of teachers, resource specialists
and local experts in science or Native knowledge.
$100 credit registration fee. Partial to full grant
support for travel and per diem on an application basis
4 credits, UAF-NRM 595 or ED 595
Elena Sparrow, Leslie Gordon, Sidney Stephens, Guest
elders and experts
Contact: Martha Kopplin
474-2601 phone / 474-6184 fax
* Global Learning and Observations to Benefit
Region: Haida, Tlingit, Tsimshian Relationships
by Andy Hope
Excerpted from Sacred Forms, a work in
For some reason, Haida clans (and some Tsimshian
clans) claim crests opposite from their Tlingit counterparts. That
is, Haida Raven moiety clans claim Tlingit Eagle moiety crests
and vice-versa. When a Haida is adopted by a Tlingit clan, they
are adopted by the opposite moiety. The Taalkweidi and Kaasxakweidi
Tlingit Raven moiety clans of Wrangell were originally Haida Eagle
moiety clans. The Tsimshian Gaanahada claim the same crests as
the Kiks.ádi, Kaach.ádi, Gaanax.ádi, Gaanax.teidi
and Teehittaan. The Laxkeiboo (Wolf People) clan of the Tsimshian,
who correspond to the Tlingit Teikweidi and the Tsimshian Ganu.at
are said to be descendants of the Tlingit Neix.ádi. The
Tlingit Raven crests Raven, Sculpin, Frog, Starfish and Sea Lion
are claimed by Haida Eagle moiety clans. Haida Raven moiety clans
claim the wolf. Many crests were obtained as gifts, were purchased
or were claimed in warfare.
Nearly 300 years ago, groups of Haida began migrating
to Alaska from Graham Island off the coast of British Columbia.
After settling in Alaska the Haida clans adopted a modified version
of the Tlingit clan house system. The Haida differ from the Tlingit
in that all clan houses in some villages belonged to clans of one
moiety, though clans of both moieties resided in each village.
Haida villages also have chiefs, and clan houses had individual
owners. Individual ownership of clan houses is prohibited by Tlingit
common law. The Alaska Haida Raven dominated villages were Klinkwan,
Sukkwan and Koinglas. Eagle dominated villages were Howkan and
Kasaan. Once settled in Alaska, the Haida began breaking away from
the main groups, founding new clans in the manner of the Tlingit.
Kaigani was named after a summer camp where they met European fur
traders and explorers. Of the Kyakaanii Eagle moiety,
the Yaadas broke into five groups and the Tseihl Laanaas
and the Sgalans formed four each. The Yaadaas were probably an
offshoot of the Sdasdas. The Kyakaanii Raven moiety
broke off in the following manner: the Yaakw Laanaas broke
into four groups; the Kwii Taas into six; the Gaw Kaywaas into
two and the Taas Laanaas into four.
A chart of the Haida crests and clan houses associated
with each moiety is being assembled and will be made available
to schools and communities throughout southeast Alaska. Anyone
wishing to participate in the development of this chart/poster
should contact Andy Hope at email@example.com or 790-4406.
Region: Cultural Orientation Program for New Teachers
by Linda Green
The Alaska Native Knowledge Network/Interior Region
lead teacher in collaboration with the Tanana Chiefs Conference,
Inc. (TCC) and the Interior Athabascan Tribal College (IATC) is
available to conduct a year-long orientation program for new teachers.
The Interior Alaska region includes nine school districts (three
single-site school districts, four Regional Educational Attendance
Areas (REAAs) and one urban school district. This program will
better prepare the new teachers to:
Work with community through local mentoring,
Identify cultural boundaries in those school
Provide a culturally appropriate and supportive
educational environment for all the students.
Funding from the Alaska Department of Education and
Early Development will be used to provide seminars on an optional
basis for new teachers, to be followed by a professional development
course in collaboration with TCCs Interior Athabascan Tribal
College. Alaska Native teachers and Elders from each community
will be recruited to mentor new staff in their district in accordance
with the new Guidelines for Cross-Cultural Orientation Programs.
The seminars will include the following:
Communicating Across Cultures
(designated staff from the Alaska Native Knowledge
Network/Lead Teacher and Interior Athabascan Tribal College)
Traditions, Language and Learning (Local Elders)
History of Education in Alaska
Utilizing resources such as the cultural standards
and Guidelines for Cross-Cultural Orientation Programs
The follow-up course will provide an introduction
to the following:
Knowledge of local Alaska Native cultural practices
Value and significance of Elders as teachers.
How to work with Elders
Curricular and instructional strategies that
focus on place-based education and experiential learning
The role of indigenous languages, oral tradition
and story telling
Native ways of knowing
Using technology in a culturally-appropriate
Culturally-appropriate curriculum resources
Guidelines for Respecting Cultural Knowledge
Native Educator Associations and other significant
Mentors and Elders will utilize the Guidelines for
Cross-Cultural Orientation Program to better orient the new teachers
into school districts and communities. Mentors will meet with the
new teachers weekly and will be responsible for the local orientation
to the community as stated in the guidelines. Elders will meet
with the new teacher at least weekly to clarify cultural questions
and offer assistance.
Please feel free to contact Linda Green at (907)
474-5814 or Reva Shircel at (907) 452-8251 ext. 3185. Letters of
inquiries can be mailed to:
P.O. Box 756730
Fairbanks, AK 99775-6730
Tanana Chiefs Conference, Inc.
122 First Avenue, Suite 600
Fairbanks, AK 99701
Region: Fifth Annual Calista Elders and Youth Convention
by Mark John, Executive Director
The Fifth Annual Calista Elders Council Elders and
Youth Convention will take place March 2729, 2003 at Kotlik.
The first day will be the annual meeting of Calista Elders Council,
which includes an election of the board, reports from CEC staff
and presentations from agency representatives with interest in
Elders. The next two days will involve presentations on "Kevgiq" (Messenger
Feast), talks on traditional Yupik values and Kevgiq performance
and demonstration by Kotlik and Stebbins Dancers.
With this event, we are going to document Kevgiq
which is a major ceremony that is filled with teasing, ridiculing,
sharing, giving, strengthening family ties, bonding as a community,
etc. With the documentation gathered from the convention, we will
make a video tape and provide information that can be made into
books for students and the general public. This will be an excellent
way of passing on Yupik knowledge and tradition.
When the churches and the schools were established
in the region in the late 1800s and early 1900s, they discouraged
the practice of traditional ceremonies. They argued that the ceremonies
were demonic and made the Native population suffer by giving away
too much of their food and material belongings. The items that
were given away were distributed to the elderly and to those without
providers. This practice was a traditional way of providing social
In most areas of the Yukon/Kuskokwim Delta, the Yupik
were forced to move towards accepting the Western way of life and
abandoning traditional Yupik ways of being. This made the
Yupik Elders back away from traditional ceremonies and practices.
The Elders also backed out of passing on this valuable knowledge.
It is important now to bring out those ways and document them while
we still have Elders with that knowledge.
This project fits right into two parts of Calista
Elders Council mission statement. It fits into " . . . striving
to maintain and preserve the cultural, linguistic and traditional
lifestyle of the Natives of the region" and "foster and
encourage the education of the young people within the Calista
Since we have made culture and history our niche
in the region, this project fits right into the activities that
we have been focusing on. It will be as excellent addition to the
progress Calista Elders Council has been making in documenting
important activities of our culture.
Alaska RSI Contacts
University of Alaska Fairbanks
PO Box 756730
Fairbanks, AK 99775-6730
(907) 474-1902 phone
(907) 474-5208 fax
University of Alaska Fairbanks
PO Box 756730
Fairbanks, AK 99775-6730
(907) 474-5403 phone
(907) 474-5208 fax
Frank W. Hill
Alaska Federation of Natives
1577 C Street, Suite 300
Anchorage, AK 99501
(907) 263-9876 phone
(907) 263-9869 fax
Olga Pestrikoff, Moses Dirks &
Kodiak Island Borough School District
722 Mill Bay Road
Kodiak, Alaska 99615
pending at Tanana Chiefs Conference
Eskimo Heritage Program Director
PO Box 948
Nome, AK 99762
(907) 443-4452 fax
8128 Pinewood Drive
Juneau, Alaska 99801
PO Box 219
Bethel, AK 99559
Teri Schneider/Olga Pestrikoff/Moses Dirks
Bernadette Yaayuk Alvanna-Stimpfle
is a publication of the Alaska Rural Systemic
Initiative, funded by the National Science Foundation Division
of Educational Systemic Reform in agreement with the Alaska
Federation of Natives and the University of Alaska.
This material is based upon work supported
by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0086194.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations
expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and
do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science
We welcome your comments and suggestions and encourage
you to submit them to:
The Alaska Native Knowledge Network
Old University Park School, Room 158
University of Alaska Fairbanks
P.O. Box 756730
Fairbanks, AK 99775-6730
(907) 474-1902 phone
(907) 474-1957 fax
Layout & Design: Paula
to the contents