A newsletter of the Alaska Rural Systemic
Alaska Federation of Natives / University
of Alaska / National Science Foundation
Volume 6, Issue 4, September/October 2001
In This Issue:
on the Tanana River
by Claudette Bradley
On July 9, 2001, 15 middle-school
students arrived at the Gaaleeya Spirit Camp on the Tanana
River to attend the Fairbanks ANSES Science Camp 2001. Six students
came from Nulato, two from Fort Yukon, one each from Newhalen,
Anchorage, Tanacross and Lime Village and three from Beijing, China.
The Chinese studentsone boy and two girls, 14 to 15 years
of agetraveled nearly 4000 miles with two chaperones to attend
our camp. They spoke English well and enjoyed full participation
in the camp.
I served as the camp coordinator
with support from Dixie Dayo as the staff assistant and Dawn Durtsche
of the Gaaleeya Board as the fiscal officer for the camp.
Together we organized the camp held at Howard Lukes Gaaleeya
Spirit Camp which is also his home. The camp is designed to enhance
students Athabascan cultural knowledge and provide opportunity
to do science research in a culturally-relevant setting.
camp employed four Elders: Howard Luke, Elizabeth Fleagle, Margaret
Tritt and Steven Toby. Howard Luke is well known for his many talks
and the advice he gives the students. He welcomes our students
every year and looks forward to helping young Native people grow
into intelligent and respectful individuals. Elizabeth Fleagle
is originally from Alatna and Manley Hot Springs. She taught the
students how to sew beads on pouches and headbands using Athabascan
designs. Margaret Tritt is from Arctic Village. She brought caribou
hides and quills. The students learned to clean and tan caribou
skins and make quill necklaces. Steven Toby, from Koyukuk, enjoyed
taking students for walks in the wilderness. He told them about
the animals, trees and survival in the forest. He had many old-time
stories to share.
This summer was the first time students
had Koyukon Athabascan classes. Velma Schafer is a certified teacher
from Allakaket and is a fluent speaker of Koyukon Athabascan. Virginia
Ned is also a certified teacher from Allakaket. Virginia acknowledges
that Velma is her Athabascan language mentor. Together they taught
students to introduce themselves, sing a song and play a game using
the Koyukon Athabascan language.
IBM of Rochester, Minnesota, has
been generous to our camp. Each year they have donated six laptops
and one color printer which are operated by battery and generators
since the camp has no electricity. In addition, they sent Todd
Kelsey, an IBM education consultant to teach in our camp and help
students with science projects. George Olanna is a certified teacher
from Shishmaref and an Iñupiaq Elder-in-training. George
is a veteran teacher in our camp. He teaches collaboratively with
Todd in the computer classes and helps students with science projects.
Both Todd and George have had a significant influence on our students.
Our students have the natural environment
to research, Elders to provide the cultural knowledge for the background
of their project and a computer lab to create labels, narrative,
charts, graphs, diagrams and photos for their projects. The certified
teaching staff has extensive experience with middle school Alaska
Native students. George Olanna, Todd Kelsey, Virginia Ned, Velma
Schafer and myself comprised the teaching staff, who worked with
the students in small groups on the many phases of their science
Jin Zhiyong is the deputy division
chief of the China Science & Technology Exchange Center, Beijing,
China. He presented an overview of China and its 56 minority groups.
The boy, Yang Guang, developed a Powerpoint presentation of his
school life in Beijing. The girls had yearbook photos of their
high school and organized some Chinese games for the students to
play. The three Chinese students study English in their Beijing
high school. Song Huanran, their English teacher, was an enthusiastic
participant in the camp. She especially enjoyed helping Howard
split the salmon caught in his fish net.
Every year Howard gets an education
permit from Fish and Game to use his fish wheel to catch salmon
on the Tanana. This year Fish and Game banned all salmon fishing
on the Tanana, though they wanted to have the fish tested for bacteria.
Since Howard already had our camp operating, Fish and Game decided
to send Paul Hershberger, a research biologist from the University
of Washington to the camp. Paul wanted to test 60 fish, so they
allowed Howard to use his fishnet to catch them. Cutting fish was
a big event. The biologist took samples from the liver, heart and
circulatory system. Howard, Dixie and Song were kept busy splitting
and hanging fish on the fish rack, which looked very full with
nearly 60 fish waving at the edge of the riverbank.
Bradley Weyiounna, originally from
Shishmaref, is a gold medal high-kick champion of the World Eskimo-Indian
Olympics. He is very knowledgeable about the WEIO athletic events
and demonstrated the games one evening along with Josh Rutman,
another WEIO athlete. They demonstrated the high kick, arm wrestling,
leg wrestling, arm pulls and Eskimo dancing. The students thoroughly
enjoyed trying to do these events with each other.
Adeline Peter-Raboff is a Gwichin
Athabascan from Arctic Village who is going to Washington, D.C.
to lobby on oil drilling in ANWR. She came to the camp one day
to have dinner and talk with the students about the Arctic National
Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) and the environmental issues involved in
drilling for oil. Most of the students were uninformed about the
issues and Adeline inspired great interest in oil drilling and
Zelma Axford is an expert on Alaskas
indigenous plants. She had the students gather plants from the
surrounding area and then draw them in their journals. She gave
them the Alaska Native names of the plants and their medicinal
uses, which they also wrote in their journals. Then the students
were given a plant encyclopedia and they looked up the Latin name
for each plant and copied the names in their journal. When the
journal writing was done, she sang and drummed for the students
as they danced to her music. Zelma is from Stevens Village and
enjoyed teaching the students traditional Athabascan dancing.
Rita OBrien is a certified
teacher and has worked in our camp for the past four years. She
joined us for the weekend to work with students. She discussed
mining and rocks in Alaska. She asked students to find rocks and
then, using rock encyclopedias, they found the names and other
features of each rock. Rita asked students to draw and write about
their rocks in their journals.
The grand finale of the camp was
the potlatch which people from the community were invited to attend.
Our students helped the cook and Elders prepare the meal and set
up the tables. At the potlatch everyone was introduced to the audience
and given a small gift to signify our appreciation for their contribution
to the camp. The students demonstrated the Athabascan songs and
games they learned in their language class. At the end of the event
everyone entered the Elders Hall where the science project
posters were on display. The students stood by their posters to
explain their science projects to the visitors. The visitors moved
from poster to poster and viewed the display table of beaded pouches
and the wall display of their photos and brief autobiographies
written in Koyukon Athabascan.
The following is a list of the science
projects the students prepared:
- Birch or Spruce? by Kimberly Rychnovsky
- Which Tastes Better? by Britta Kellman
- Beads by Adele Stickman
- Will Pitch Kill More Bacteria Than Water? by Sommer
- Do Frogs Croak Faster in Warm Weather? by Katrina
- What Chickadees do for a Living by Esther George?
- Can Water Temperature Go Below Freezing? by Terry
- What do Salmon Eat After Leaving the Ocean? by
- How Many Different Athabascan Dialects are There
in the Interior Of Alaska? by Stephanie Moe
- The Speed of the River by Li Hanqiao
- Why are There so Many Mosquitoes in and Around
Camp? by Yang Guang
- I Want to Know Some Mysteries About Hair by Yan
- How Can I Improve Lighting in a Trap Line Cabin?
by Mathew Shewfelt
- How to Reduce Mosquitoes in Fort Yukon by Kyle
- Nets by Catherine Keane
These students are expected to take
their display boards to their classroom teacher this fall and then
search the web and their school libraries for more background information
on their project. They will have an opportunity to discuss their
project with Elders, teachers and other experts in their villages
or over the Internet, and then upgrade their project and enter
it in the Fairbanks ANSES Science Fair 2001 in December. We look
forward to seeing the students at the science fair.
Athabascan Region: Emphasis on Native
Language at Fairbanks ANSES Camp 2001
by Nakukluk Virginia Ned, Allakaket/Fairbanks
The Fairbanks Alaska Native Science
and Engineering (ANSES) Camp created an ideal setting that sparked
the students interest in learning the Central Koyukon Athabascan
language. Velma Schafer and I had the opportunity to teach Central
Koyukon language to the ANSES Camp participants this summer at
the Gaaleeya Spirit Camp. We worked with twelve students
from Nulato, Newhalen, Ft. Yukon, Lime Village, Anchorage, Tanacross
and three students from Beijing, China.
The students were enthusiastic about
learning the language and as a result, their acquisition of the
language was exceptional. The students from Ft. Yukon and Beijing
spoke fluently in their indigenous languages. Other students had
taken indigenous language classes at school and all had prior knowledge
of their indigenous languages. Velmas expertise, high expectations
and the ideal camp setting made it possible for the students to
become naturally immersed in the Native language.
The students were taught Central
Koyukon terms that enabled them to introduce themselves in the
language stating their English name, their Koyukon name, their
hometown and a short description of themselves. They were given
a Central Koyukon name according to their personal characteristics,
if they did not already have one. Names that were given included
Hekedeeonh (sunshine), Sotseeyh (happy all the time) and
Tloo (star). The students were also taught general terms
for every day usage. They were required to create a display using
a variety of media and written in the Koyukon language. We took
pictures with a digital camera and the photos were printed for
students to add to their poster.
They also learned a song, "This Little
Heart of Mine," translated into Koyukon by Lorna Vent of Huslia.
The title of the song is "Heeeteghtldzaayh." They learned
a game that teaches body parts in the Koyukon language. It is a
Koyukon version of the Yupik game, "Essuukee," introduced
to me by Lolly Carpluk of Mountain Village. Velma Schafer translated
the words into the Koyukon language. The title of the game in Koyukon
is "Kkaakene". After the potlatch the students introduced themselves
in Koyukon, sang the song "Heeeteghtldzaayh", and gave a
demonstration of the game "Kkaakene" for the audience.
Learning the Native language unquestionably
enhanced the science focus of the Fairbanks ANSES Camp program.
The students did not just acquire a language, but they acquired
a whole new perspective of themselves, their culture and traditions.
Given the appropriate environment, they would do well if they were
taught the language along with all of the basic requirements in
order to acquire a well-rounded education.
And the Beat Goes On . . .
by Frank Hill
Some time ago I listened to a drumming
ceremony that lasted for most of a day and night. The first drummers
set the beat, rhythm and volume. As they tired or completed their
turn on the drums, other drummers moved into position and took
up the drumsticks, carrying on the same beat, rhythm and volume
as the beginning drummers, never missing a beat. Unless you saw
the change in the drummers take place, you would not have known
that the drumbeats and the message of the drums was being made
by different drummers.
As we move into the second five years
of the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative (AKRSI), it is great to
see our new partners take up the initiatives we have been developing
and promoting the past six years, without missing a beat. The regional
non-profits (Kawerak, AVCP, Tanana Chiefs and Central Council of
Tlingit and Haida tribes) are well on their way toward becoming
educational agents for positive change in their respective cultural
regions. We are pleased, too, to see the initiatives continue to
develop and broaden in the Alutiiq and Unangax regions. It was
great to be a spectator in Kodiak during the "Awakening Bear" celebration
this past spring, where nearly all of the regional agencies were
participating in planning and demonstrating how their activities
worked together. Some activities have become self-sustaining in
their own right as well, like the Old Minto Camp.
These are but a few of the examples
available that demonstrate the continuing veracity of the AKRSI
We are thankful that the new AKRSI
partners have stepped in and helped keep up the drumbeat for systemic
change in rural Alaskas schools.
Northern Koyukon, Gwichin and Lower Tanana 18001901
by Adeline Peter Raboff
The history of the Northern Koyukon, Western Gwichin
and Lower Tanana people. 196 pages, $10.00
for Strengthening Indigenous Languages
This booklet offers suggestions for Elders, parents,
children and educators to use in strengthing their heritage language
with support from the Native community, schools, linguists and
education agencies. 28 pages, free.
For more information on obtaining
copies of these publications, call Dixie Dayo at 907-474-1902 or
Ka Lamaku Hawaiian Academy
by Kamaileula Halualani-Hee
Ka Lamaku Hawaiian Academy is a voluntary,
culturally based educational opportunity that was founded by Kamaileula
Halualani-Hee and Makaio Hee as an effort to help their school-disabled
son and daughter. It opened services to other children in September
of 1999. Ka Lamaku currently rents a one-bedroom apartment as our
temporary school house.
Ka Lamaku means "upright torch, standing
beacon,"a name chosen to signify a strong guiding light that
pierces the darkness, bringing wanderers to safety. Ka Lamaku is
also an ancient Hawaiian symbol of knowledge. Ka Lamaku Hawaiian
Academy is an action research pilot program aimed at meeting Hawaiis
educational needs of school-disabled children grades 712
on the island of Oahu in the Koolau poko and Koolau
A school-disabled child is one whose
maturational and learning differences have been misunderstood and
underserved and, consequently, whose personal, social and familial
functioning have been so impaired as to render that child unable
to perform successfully in a school environment. The students we
serve are, because of a myriad of circumstances beyond their control,
disadvantaged in many ways. Their academic achievements as well
as other skills that create social competencies had, as a result,
been seriously and negatively affected. Most of these students
were exhibiting signs of social distress such as flat affect, anti-social
attitudes and behaviors, disrespect for authority, irresponsible
actions, truancy, school failure and substance abuse. Some were
school disabled while others had developed pre-delinquent behaviors
and were known to local policemen. They had been described as "throw
away kids". Ka Lamaku Hawaiian Academy does not accept such evaluations
for these youth.
We believe in a new kind of "three
Rs": Rescue, Restore and Re-educate. Through deep and constant
use of Hawaiian cultural values, Ka Lamaku has impacted the lives
of twenty youngsters of mixed Hawaiian ancestry. The program has
been open to whomever applied, but those it attracted were all
children of part-Hawaiian ancestry who had been struggling unsuccessfully
in the state D.O.E. programs. Ka Lamaku is a community-based effort,
creating pedagogy that proves effective for children with learning
The staff has been involving the
children, their parents, kupuna (elder) and other talented members
in designing and implementing curriculum modules. Thus the students
are in many ways teaching us how to teach them, showing us what
works by their enthusiastic response to learning opportunities.
They also show us what doesnt work and participate in discussions
about how to improve those areas and teaching methods. Several
volunteer teachers have come and gone. They proved to be steeped
in the Western, textbook pedagogy and when they were unsuccessful
and became discouraged, they tended to blame the children for failing
to learn when it was they who failed to teach.
At present we are applying for federal
New Century Public Charter status, however our goal is to one day
be Hawaiis first sovereign school. Request for admission
is made on a daily basis but, because of severe financial and space
restraints, we are unable to accommodate more students at this
If you or your organization would
like to assist Ka Lamaku Hawaiian Academy or would like more information
please contact Kamaileula Halualani Hee at (808) 293-1121 or e-mail email@example.com.
Our mailing address is PO BOX 693, Hauula, Hawaii 96717.
Teacher Leadership Development Project
The underlying purpose of the Alaska
Rural Systemic Initiative is to implement a set of initiatives
to systematically document the indigenous knowledge systems of
Alaska Native people and develop pedagogical practices and school
curricula that appropriately incorporate indigenous knowledge and
ways of knowing into the formal education systems. Having successfully
demonstrated the efficacy of this strategy in strengthening rural
schools and teachers and improving student achievement, the challenge
for AKRSI now is to help infuse the initiatives into the curricular
and instructional practices on a sustainable basis.
The high turnover rate of teaching
staff (80% of whom are recruited from out-of-state) necessitates
a targeted approach to leadership development that focuses on those
teachers most likely to put these resources to effective use and
bring their cumulative insights to bear over time, i.e., teachers
for whom the community/region/state is their home. To that end,
the AKRSI has requested supplemental funds from the National Science
Foundation to implement a Teacher Leadership Development Project
(TLDP). The structures through which the TLDP will be implemented
are those associated with regional and statewide Native educator
associations. Following is a current list of the associations that
have emerged in response to AKRSI initiatives over the past six
- Ciulistet Education Association
- Association of Interior Native Educators
- Southeast Native Educators Association
- North Slope Iñupiaq Educators Association
- Association of Native Educators of the Lower Kuskokwim
- Association of Northwest Native Educators
- Native Educators of the Alutiiq Region
- Association of Unangan/Unangas Educators
- Alaska Native Education Student Association
- Alaska Native Education Council
- Alaska First Nations Research Network
- Alaska Indigenous Literary Review Board
- Consortium for Alaska Native Higher Education
- Native Education Association of Anchorage
Implementation of the AKRSI TLDP
The main function of the AKRSI Teacher
Leadership Development Project will be to strengthen and make sustainable
the role of the Native Educator Associations and their members
in implementing the math/science educational reform initiatives
promoted by the AKRSI. This will require the development of leadership
capacity in each region and the establishment of formal mechanisms
to sustain the implementation of these initiatives independent
of the AKRSI resources by 2005. Following are the steps that will
be taken to implement this strategy:
- The Alaska Native Education Advisory Council to
the Commissioner of Education, made up of representatives from
each of the Native Educator Associations, will be designated
as the governing body to provide direction for the implementation
of the Teacher Leadership Development Project.
- The Alaska Native Education Advisory Council and
the AKRSI Co-PIs will recruit and select a full-time project
director to coordinate and oversee the initiatives sponsored
by the Teacher Leadership Development Project.
- At least one Native educator association in each
of the five major cultural regions will be assisted in obtaining
501(c)3 non-profit status, so as to be eligible to obtain and
implement grants and contracts under their own authority.
- The Native educator associations from each of
the five cultural regions will be invited to prepare and submit
a work plan outlining the steps they would propose to take to
implement the Teacher Leadership Development Project in their
region, including the identification of a lead/master teacher
for the region (with up to half release time from their employing
district) and the activities to be implemented in conjunction
with the AKRSI initiative emphasis for each year (e.g., science
camps/fairs, Academy of Elders, cultural atlas, curriculum alignment,
parent/community involvement, etc.) The lead/master teachers
will be selected at the regional level with criteria comparable
to those for the project director, but with responsibilities
directed toward regional implementation of the AKRSI/TLDP math/science
educational reform initiatives. The selection committee will
consist of regional Native educator association members, the
TLDP project director and the AKRSI co-directors.
- Once selected, the lead/master teachers will work
with the AKRSI staff to develop the wherewithal to assist teachers
and schools in the implementation of the initiatives associated
with the Teacher Leadership Development Project in alignment
with the AKRSI regional initiatives and the Alaska Standards
for Culturally Responsive Schools.
- The Native educator associations will convene
regional and statewide meetings to review the action plans for
preparing culturally-responsive teachers from the 2000 Native
Education Summit and the recommendations from the 2001 Forum
on Culturally-Responsive Curriculum and to develop action plans
for regional implementation of those recommendations. The regional
action plans will take into account the Guidelines for Preparing
Culturally-Responsive Teachers and the Guidelines for Nurturing
- The Native educator associations will work with
local districts and the Alaska Department of Education and Early
Development to sponsor a cross-cultural orientation program,
including an immersion camp component, for all teachers new to
- The Native educator associations will work with
local school districts to provide career ladder incentives that
encourage all teachers and teacher aides to pursue training for
a cross-cultural specialist endorsement, Type A license with
math/science emphasis and/or graduate studies oriented toward
implementing culturally responsive, standards-based science and
- The Native educator associations will encourage
their members to participate in the Native Administrators for
Rural Alaska program in pursuit of a Type B principals credential
with a distributed leadership orientation.
- The Native educator associations, in collaboration
with the Alaska Department of Education and Early Development,
will host an annual statewide conference to showcase the instructional
and curricular strategies and initiatives that demonstrate the
greatest promise toward implementing culturally-responsive, standards-based
science and math instruction.
These initiatives are intended to
begin with the 200102 school year, with the process for selection
of the project director and lead/master teachers to occur by the
end of September. Funding for the TLDP will be administered through
the Alaska Federation of Natives with support for the activities
of the lead/master teachers provided through memoranda of agreement
with the employing school districts. The project director and the
lead/master teachers will be included as core staff and will participate
in all planning activities associated with the Alaska Rural Systemic
Initiative. Upon completion of the three-year cycle of initiatives
associated with the Teacher Leadership Development Project, all
teachers in the AKRSI partner schools will have received support
to incorporate the math/science curricular and instructional strategies
in their educational practice, with on-going support provided through
an established statewide network of Native educator associations.
200101 Native Education Events
Here are some Alaska Native education
events for the 20012002 school year that you should mark
on your calendar.
The Alaska Federation of Natives
Elders and Youth Conference and Convention will take place in Anchorage
the week of October 21, 2001, including the Alaska Native Education
Council meeting on October 2123 at the Westcoast International.
The National Indian Education Association
annual meeting will be held in Billings, Montana on October 2731,
2001. Details can be obtained from the NIEA web site at http://www.niea.org.
The annual Native Educators Conference
and Bilingual-Multicultural Education/Equity Conference is scheduled
for the week of February 3, 2002 in Anchorage. Details for participation
in these conferences will be posted on the ANKN web site in October.
The First Alaskans Foundation is
sponsoring a statewide Alaska Native Education Summit in Anchorage
on November 30 December 1, 2001. Further information will
be available on the Alaska Native Knowledge Network web site as
it becomes available.
The sixth tri-annual World Indigenous
Peoples Conference on Education is scheduled for August 410,
2002 to be hosted by the First Nations Adult and Higher Education
Consortium of Calgary, Alberta. Details about WIPCE 2002 can be
obtained by sending an email to firstname.lastname@example.org or
by going to their web site at http://www.
fnahec.org/wipce2002. The deadline for submission of proposals
for presentations has been extended to October 31, 2001. Lets
make sure there is a strong Alaskan presence at WIPCE 2002!
Integrating Elders in Northern School
by Cathy McGregor
In 1994, as director (superintendent)
of the Baffin Divisional Board of Education in Iqaluit, Northwest
Territories, Canada, I was asked the question every educational
leader dreams of hearing: "If you could have money for one thing
in your schools, what would it be?" I didnt know if the question
was hypothetical or real. Should I take it seriously? If it was
real, I thought I knew the answer right away, but I paused to turn
over all the possibilities in my mind. What would have the most
effect on students? It seemed like schools could never get enough
computers. Should we hire extra special needs assistants? We always
needed more resources to support Inuktitut book publication. What
about northern books for school libraries? Did schools need new
gym equipment? High schools probably wanted more science equipment.
I quickly reviewed these and other possibilities, but I knew my
initial thought was the right one. I said what the chairman of
the board talked about in every public speech and meeting he attended: "Money
to hire more Elders."
It turned out that the question was
very real. Thanks to the efforts of a territorial administrator
and a federal official who wanted to make a difference and had
program funds to support their ideas, this conversation began a
five-year partnership with the Canadian federal government to support
the hiring of Elders in Baffin schools. For the first several years
the funding came directly from the federal government. When the
federal and territorial governments, in partnership with the Inuit
land claim organization, Nunavut Tunngavik, established the Nunavut
Human Resource Development Strategy, funding came through their
auspices (Working Group on Human Resources and Training, 1996)
. The Baffin Divisional Board supported the project as well, so
that for the five-year period of the federal funding, $200,000
was made available to schools each year.
Elders as Cultural Inclusion or Cultural Integration?
When Elders first started coming
into schools in northern Canada in the 1970s, their work with students
was often considered an add-on to the regular program. Lessons
frequently took place on Friday afternoon when the teacher and
students were tired of the weekly routine. Activities often involved
a whole class of students in their regular classroom. Teachers
did little preparation of the students or the Elders for their
time together. Teachers sometimes viewed the lessons by Elders
as "spares" for themselves and left the room. Viewed from the advantage
of today, these "cultural inclusion" programs appear as token gestures
by the school system to the teaching of traditional knowledge and
skills. It is difficult to imagine that either the students or
the Elders got much satisfaction from these encounters.
Today, the work of Elders is seen
as integral to the success of school programs. In most communities
in the Baffin region, schools have a dual mandate from the Local
Education Authority, as well as the territorial government, to
teach both traditional Inuit knowledge and skills and contemporary
Western knowledge and skills. A survey of all Baffin communities
in 1986 and direction-setting work with individual communities
from 199396 confirmed this dual agenda. Thus the work that
Elders do is part of the regular school program today. In the late
80s and early 90s, the Baffin Piniaqtavut Program of Studies provided
topics for teachers to use to connect the work of Elders with the
rest of the school program. The Inuuqatigiit curriculum from K12,
mandated by the government in 1996, outlines traditional Inuit
knowledge and skills students should learn within various school
divisions (K3, 46, 79, 1012). This provides
the basis for integrating culture and the work of Elders into the
regular curriculum. It is within this context that the work of
Elders with students should be viewed.
Ways to Fund Elders
For many years, the Baffin Board
had requested that the government fund positions for Elders in
schools similar to the way in which they funded positions for teachers
and language specialists (para-professionals). At that time, this
had not happened (nor has it yet). There were a number of ways
in which schools obtained funds to hire Elders to teach traditional
- Each school received funds as part of their base
budget to support cultural programming. A per pupil allocation
determined the specific amount each school received. (This of
course, gave an advantage to larger schools in terms of flexibility
in using the funds.) Schools could use these funds to hire Elders
and to purchase the materials (skins, gas, ammunition, etc.)
required to carry out traditional activities.
- If the Local Education Authority (the elected
school council) who had authority to determine the budget chose
to do so, they could also allocate funds from other parts of
the school budget for this purpose.
- The board had a regional Spring Camp Fund to which
schools could submit a proposal to access additional funds for
resource people such as Elders, as well as equipment and materials
to hold this important annual event.
- The board had a regional Orientation Fund to which
schools could submit proposals to access additional funds to
involve community members and Elders in annual orientation activities
for new staff.
- Schools could raise third party funds from foundations
and other organizations. Often guidelines for grants for other
purposes allowed schools to include funding for Elders as part
of the budget for such projects.
- Schools could access funds from regional Inuit
organizations through the local settlement/village council, who
controlled the funding for specific programs from other departments
of the federal government. For example, the federal Healthy Children
initiative allowed activities which involved Elders.
- Schools could partner with community groups such
as the Hunters and Trappers Organization to get in-kind support
for land-based activities.
- Schools could use full time staff positions intended
for language specialists or teachers.
While these options provided funding
for Elder involvement in schools, the additional funding enabled
schools to increase the numbers of Elders present, extend the length
of time they were involved with students and/or add new activities.
Ways to Involve Elders
The Baffin Board made funds available
to schools through a grant system. The total money available was
divided into school allocations, which each school could apply
to access. Individual school allocations were determined by setting
a base amount for all schools and then adding a per-pupil amount
to achieve the total allocation available. Schools had to submit
a brief proposal outlining how the Elders would be involved with
students. The Local Education Authority chairperson, the principal
and the staff member coordinating the project had to sign the proposal.
For the first several years, the grants focused just on Elder involvement
In 1996, with the implementation
of the government-mandated Inuuqatigiit curriculum, which outlined
the traditional knowledge, skills and attitudes from an Inuit perspective
that students should learn in school, the focus of the grants shifted
somewhat to involving Elders in implementing the new curriculum
(see appendix). In fact, this shift did not really change the nature
of Elder involvementthey still taught traditional knowledge
and skills. It did provide school staff with a guide of topics,
an outline of what students should learn and a description of key
experiences they might ask Elders to organize. In other words,
it provided an organizational framework for traditional knowledge
Using a combination of funds available,
schools hired Elders in a number of different ways, to do a variety
- As full time cultural instructorsregular
staff members along with teachers and language specialistsusually
with scheduled times each week for work with different classes
or groups of students. The topics and skills they taught varied
depending on the age and interests of the students and the interests
of the Elder.
- As part-time instructors who came in several days
or afternoons a week during the year to do a variety of activities
with different groups of students, depending on the class and
Elders interests. As with full time instructors, these
activities could include storytelling, teaching string and other
Inuit games, skin preparation, sewing, cooking, tool construction,
specific skills instruction, carving, drum dancing, researching
specific topics, helping with community histories, telling their
life stories, etc.
- As part-time instructors who taught a "unit" or
specific topic or activity every day to the same students for
several weeks at a time.
- As part-time instructors who were involved in
specific activities such as Spring Camp or, for example, once-a-week
on-the-land programs with at-risk students for the duration of
- As part-time research sources to narrate information
on a specific topic to be developed into a teaching unit or a
- As part-time program developers to assist teachers
and language specialists with creating materials which teach
aspects of traditional knowledge. For example: iglu building,
small tool construction, sewing with caribou skins, how to make
igunaaq (fermented seal or whale meat), how to read the weather,
- As full or part-time Inuktitut language instructors
in addition to, or instead of, language specialists.
- As part-time counselors, mainly for students,
but also sometimes for staff members. Some staffs have found
it particularly helpful to have Elders in the school after difficult
or tragic community events.
- As an Elders council for the principal (in
addition to the Local Education Authority) to assist with solving
particularly thorny problems, community liaison, planning cultural
programs and hosting special events and activities.
Ensuring Success with Elders
There are many reasons to involve Elders in schools:
- To meet goals set by Local Education Authorities
(and the government) which identify traditional knowledge and
skills as a major component of school programs.
- To maintain, strengthen and enhance Inuit language
- To create links between the past and the present.
- To build links between the school and the community.
- To encourage links between students and their
parents and grandparents.
- To build positive relationships between Elders
and younger generations.
- To help students learn to respect Elders, the
lives they have lived and the knowledge and skills they have
- To acknowledge and provide opportunities for Elders
to share the wisdom, skills and experiences they have accumulated
with younger generations.
- To reflect, promote and teach Inuit values and
- To foster student and staff pride in their Inuit
identity and enhance self-esteem and personal identity.
- To promote respect for animals and other elements
of the natural environment which are intimately linked with Inuit
- To ensure younger generations are knowledgeable
about and can practice traditional/contemporary survival skills.
To achieve these goals, both Elders
and students need to enjoy their experiences together. To enable
this to happen, careful thought needs to be given to how and where
the Elders work with students. We have found the following suggestions
to be helpful in ensuring positive experiences:
- It is an unfortunate aspect of modern life that
Elders may be requested in some districts to have criminal record
checks completed prior to working in the school. If so, the school
needs to expedite the process in any way possible.
- It is usually helpful if there is one staff member
in the school who coordinates the Elder resource program. Ideally
it should be someone from the community who speaks the language
and knows community members well. Ideally this should be a responsibility
that is part of the staff members normal workload, not
added to a full time teaching job. Having such a person minimizes
potential communication and cross-cultural misunderstandings.
- It is important to clarify ahead of time what
the Elder would like to do with the students and what materials
and equipment will be needed. Will the Elder provide these (at
the schools expense if there is any cost) or will the school
- Elders may require transportation to and from
the school. The school should arrange this and cover any costs
- Elders should be made aware of how much the school
pays them (by the hour or the day or whatever is normal practice).
There should be a standard fee for Elders work. They should
know how and when they will receive their money. If possible,
it is preferable to pay them the same day. This is not always
possible, but it usually is much appreciated if it can be arranged.
(It is also important to note that Elders may lose social security
benefits if they earn a certain amount of other income, so this
needs to be taken into consideration in the remuneration arrangements.)
- Many Elders prefer to work with students in the
afternoon, but it is important to check with each individual
to determine the best time for them.
- The school needs to be flexible in scheduling
Elders. They may not feel well on the particular day they are
scheduled or something else may prevent them from coming. It
is important to be sensitive to and adapt to their needs rather
than to ask them to fit within the rigid timetable of many school
- Students should be prepared for working with Elders.
What kind of behaviour is expected of students? Why should they
respect the Elder? What will the Elder expect of the students?
What should students expect from the Elder? How is working with
Elders different from formal school instruction?
- Ask Elders to work with small groups of students
or in one-on-one situations. Requiring Elders to take a whole
class of 25 students to do an activity is not usually conducive
to the Elder teaching or the students learning.
- Provide a specific space for the Elder to work
with students if the activity is done in the school. Depending
on the nature of the activity, they could work in the school
shop or the home economics room. Some schools have special skin
rooms for processing animal furs. Some schools have provided
an Elders room in which small group activities such as
sewing, story telling, researching topics, or playing Inuit games
can take place. These rooms are usually equipped with comfortable
seating and some means to make tea and have bannockfor
both Elders and students. They are more like a living room than
- Some Elders might prefer to take a few students
to work in their own home or in the community Elders centre.
(You may want to provide additional supervision assistance in
- If the school has a qammaq (traditional sod house)
or tents nearby, depending on the season, these often provide
the best environment from both the Elders and the students perspective.
They provide an appropriate context for teaching traditional
skills. We have found that students who are restless and aggressive
in the classroom often calm down in the presence of the Elder
in this setting.
- If the activity involves a land trip, nature provides
the "environment" for the activity. As much as possible, it is
preferable to take the students out of the school setting for
work with Elders. Teaching and learning traditional knowledge
is most effective when it takes place within the environmental
context in which it is needed and used.
- Whenever possible, teachers should participate
in activities with Elders and students. This is not always possible,
especially when Elders take small groups of students, as the
teacher may need to stay with the other students. What this does
mean is that Elders should not be used to give teachers a "spare" period.
Paying attention to these details
will ensure that both students and Elders have a meaningful experience
working together. This will encourage Elders to continue to want
to work with students and will help students give Elders the respect
they deserve. This is essential if teaching traditional knowledge
and skills is to be an integral part of the northern school program.
Fall Course Offerings for Educators
in Rural Alaska
by Ray Barnhardt
Just as the new school year brings
learning opportunities to students, so too does it bring new learning
opportunities for teachers and those seeking to become teachers.
This fall rural teachers and aspiring
teachers will have a variety of distance education courses to choose
from as they seek ways to upgrade their skills, renew their teaching
license, pursue graduate studies or meet the states Alaska
Studies and Multicultural Education requirements. All Alaskan teachers
holding a provisional teaching license are required to complete
a three-credit course in Alaska Studies and a three-credit course
in Multicultural Education within the first two years of teaching
to qualify for a standard Type A certificate. Following is a list
of some of the courses available through the Center for Distance
Education that may be of interest to rural educators:
ANTH 242, Native Cultures of Alaska
GEOG 302, Geography of Alaska
HIST 115, Alaska, Land and Its People
HIST 461, History of Alaska.
CCS 601, Documenting Indigenous Knowledge Systems
CCS 608, Indigenous Knowledge Systems.
Enrollment in the above courses may
be arranged through the nearest UAF rural campus or by contacting
the Center for Distance Education at 907-474-5353 or email@example.com,
or by going to the CDE web site at http://www.dist-ed.uaf.edu.
Those rural residents who are interested in pursuing a program
to earn a teaching credential or a B.A. should contact the rural
education faculty member at the nearest rural campus or the Rural
Educator Preparation Partnership office at 907-474-5589. Teacher
education programs and courses are available for students with
or without a baccalaureate degree. Anyone interested in pursuing
a graduate degree by distance education should contact the Center
for Cross-Cultural Studies at 907-474-1902 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Welcome to the 200102 school year!
Iñupiaq Region: Tough Love
by Dolly Caffin
The wilderness can be tough lovelove
so tough that it sometimes keeps us from the ones we care about,
from the place we call home and where we find warmth and comfort.
Finding ourselves lost in the wilderness usually doesnt fit
into our plans, but you never know when life is going to slow you
down so that your soul can get all the attention it needs.
For Martha Foster and Louise Clark
of Selawik, they experienced this kind of love first hand. Traveling
by snowmachine to a basketball game in Noorvik, the two became
lost in a snowstorm. They spent hours trying to see through the
blinding snow and make their way along the trail. Eventually they
made a wrong turn and found themselves with a machine that was
out of gas and in snow that was knee deep. They were lost in the
vast wilderness of the NANA region of Northwest Arctic.
Throughout the time that they were
trying to make their way back to Selawik, they experienced every
possible emotion. Every emotion except onethe willingness
to give up. Somehow these two kept their focus on being found by
Search and Rescue. They sang church songs, they prayed, they pulled
together and kept each other going. They worked together and they
never gave up. Martha and Louise were lost for seven days before
they were located.
Their experience was life changing.
To spend seven days in the wilderness is certainly tough love.
Through their ordeal they found that they had the courage and strength
to survive. They developed a bond of friendship that will never
be broken. Individually they each found a will to livean
inner yearning that kept them going day after day. It seems they
were sent into the wilderness for more than one reason: to "find" not
only themselves, but each other.
They used basic survival skills they
had learned from Elders, during Iñupiaq activities held
at their school. Their story was the inspiration for this years
Iñupiaq Days theme, "Arctic Survival."
Elders, community members and villagers
from around the NANA region came to the Selawik Davis-Ramoth School
for the week-long event. They presented the students with a series
of discussions and demonstrations about snowmachine safety, orienteering,
cold weather clothing and snow shelters. Many other survival skills
were also taught.
A community feast was held one evening,
in honor of the two girls and all of the people who helped with
the search and rescue, both locally and regionally. Special awards
were also given to the people who volunteered their time to come
and share information with the students during the week.
Many lives were touched because of
the tough love these girls experienced while being lost in the
wilderness. Their ordeal brought together the school, the community
and various Native organizations for an event that celebrated life
in the Northwest Arctic. For more information and to view photos
of the Iñupiaq activities, visit the following website:
Yupik Region: Elders and
Youth Conference Explores Yupik Culture
by Esther Ilutsik
To my delight I discovered that within
the Yupik kinship system those relatives I know as my brothers
and sisters have expanded to include my anaanaq my mothers
sisters, and ataatak, my fathers brothers children
I have to treat them as I would
my own brothers and sisters (meaning respecting them and helping
them out when they are in need; I have to call them my brothers
and sisters using the proper terms for older brother, anngaq,
or oldest sister, alqaq, or younger brothers and sisters, kinguqliq.
As the parallel aunt, I would call my sisters and brothers
children nurraq (and this is only from the female point of
Logically, within the Western worldview
(that many of us were raised in), we assumed that we would also
call our parallel nieces and nephews our children but that is not
so. Those are just some of the complexities of the Yupik
kinship system which was the focal point of the Elders and
Youth Conference that was held in Dillingham, May 46, 2001.
Representatives included Elders,
teachers and students from New Stuyahok, Ekwok, Portage Creek,
Aleknagik, Manokotak, Twin Hills and Togiak. We also had representatives
from here in Dillingham. About 60 people participated at the Dillingham
Elementary School gym.
The conference began with a potluck
dinner and a warm welcome from Dewayne Johnson, Curyung, Tribal
Council Chief and from Dillingham City Council member and mayor,
Chris Napoli. Mr. Johnson introduced himself and identifed his
parents, siblings and other relativeswhat a great way to
begin the conference!
This presentation was followed with
Yupik oral stories presented by Ina Bouker, a certified teacher
currently on leave from the Dillingham City Schools and a member
of the Ciulistet Research Association. These stories weaved in
dances; Boukers five-year-old son, Nicky, was the drummer
and her daughters, Nia (nine) and Atkiq (four) were dancers. The
audience was enthralled as Ina used both the Yupik and English
language. This was followed with the local Aruvak dancers, the
New Stuyahok dancers and Manokotak student dancers sharing and
exciting the audience with dances of the past.
The evening concluded with Elder
Slim Yako, formerly of Aleknagik and currently residing at the
Maarulut Eniit Assisted Living Center, drumming and singing songs
of his youth.
The following day began with linguist
Marie Meade helping to facilitate the discussion and investigation
of traditional Yupik kinship and proper protocol used in
interacting. After an exhausting day, we wrapped up with a special
evening youth dance that was planned especially for all the student
representatives coming in from the villages.
On the final day we had the Elders
each present an oral genealogy that was fascinating to listen to.
The students followed, presenting their own genealogies. The teachers
then shared how they were going to implement this information within
their own communities and classrooms. It was such a wonderful way
to end a conferencethe Elders knowing that as educators we
are attempting to bring back some of our own values that have fallen
by the wayside.
Southeast Region: Southeast Alaska
Tribal College is Launched
by Andy Hope
The Southeast Alaska Tribal College
(SEATC) has been in the planning process since late 1997. SEATC
has been an active partner in a statewide tribal college planning
project that has been supported by the Kellogg Foundation and the
National Science Foundation through the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative.
SEATC is a founding member of the Consortium for Alaska Native
In early 1999, interim trustees were
appointed by the Southeast Alaska Native Rural Education Consortium;
the interim trustees formally incorporated SEATC in late 1999.
In the last two years a number of organizations have endorsed the
tribal college planning project. It is now time for the SEATC to
establish itself as a formal, independent education institution.
An overview of the Kellogg project, "Kellogg
Cluster Evaluation: Alaska Native Effort to Develop Tribal Colleges" by
Dr. Michael Pavel, is available on the ANKN/CANHE web site to those
interested in more background. Another information resource on
tribal colleges is the recent report "Building Strong Communities:
Tribal Colleges as Engaged Institutions" published by the American
Indian Higher Education Consortium and the Institute for Higher
Education Policy. Copies of this report can be ordered from the
IHEP website at www.ihep.com.
The report can also be downloaded from the same website, though
it is a rather large document.
Additional background information
on the Consortium for Alaska Native Higher Education can be found
on the Alaska Native Knowledge Network website at www.ankn.uaf.edu.
The American Indian Higher Education Consortium website at www.aihec.org is
also a valuable information resource.
The following individuals have served
as volunteer, unpaid interim trustees for SEATC since the spring
of 1999: Andy Hope, Marie Olson, Nora Dauenhauer, Roxanne Houston,
Joe Hotch, Ed Warren, Ron Dick, Isabella Brady, Jim Walton, Bernice
Tetpon, Joyce Shales, Arnold Booth, Charles Natkong, Dennis Demmert
and Sue Stevens. The late John Hope served as an interim trustee
from May 1999 until his death in October 1999. The SEATC interim
trustees are asking that a group of federally-recognized tribes
in southeast Alaska ratify the SEATC charter and bylaws at the
The following organizations, groups
and individuals have adopted resolutions endorsing the planning
efforts of the SEATC: Chilkat Indian Village, Douglas Indian Association,
Sitka Tribe of Alaska, Central Council of Tlingit and Haida Indian
Tribes of Alaska, Wrangell Cooperative Association, Wrangell ANB/ANS
Camps, Sitka ANB/ANS Camps, Alaska Intertribal Council, Grand Camp
ANB/ANS, National Congress of American Indians and approximately
200 clan and clan house leaders that attended the Kiks.ádi
Pole Raising Ceremonies in Sitka in September 1999.
The SEATC interim trustees have appointed
a nominations committee to solicit nominations for the 11 member
board of trustees. Committee members are Nora Dauenhauer, Dr. Ronald
Dick, Andy Hope, Roxanne Houston and Dr. Ted Wright. The first
annual SEATC meeting will take place on September 13, 2001 in Juneau
at which time the Board of Trustees will be officially appointed.
Please contact Andy Hope for information on the nomination process
or to submit a nomination.
There are two other, related meetings
scheduled for the week of September 10 in Juneau. A Tribal Watershed/GIS/Cultural
Atlas workshop will take place in Juneau from September 1012.
The workshop will include presentations on Arc/View GIS, the Aboriginal
Mapping Network, the Angoon, Kake, Sitka and Klukwan-Haines cultural
atlases, the ANKN website resources, the I Am Salmon curriculum,
the SE Alaska Native Place Names project and the Herman Kitka traditional
ecological knowledge CD-ROMs. The Southeast Alaska Native Rural
Education Consortium will meet on September 14 to plan the next
round of regional activities for the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative.
We hope that each tribe can send
representatives to this important meeting. If you have any questions
regarding the SEATC bylaws, annual meeting or any of the related
meetings, you can contact me at email@example.com
or call me at 907-790-4406.
Alutiiq/Unangax Region: Celebrating
An item of my mothers that
I have admired from the time I was a child is a grass basket that
sat on a shelf in our kitchen when I was growing up. Just the other
day it caught my eye once again. I grew up knowing that the basket
was made by Feodosia (Kahutak) Inga of Old Harbor and was given
to my mother by Feodosia as a gift when she and my dad were watching
the cannery in Shearwater and visited Old Harbor for Russian Easter.
Feodosia, the mother of George Inga,
Sr., carried on the tradition of the "Kodiak-style" Aleut* basket,
which tended to have a bit larger weave and was typically more
heavily decorated, even when her eyesight failed. Grass basket
weaving has been done by numerous indigenous cultures throughout
the world as one adaptation to their environment. Aleut basket
weaving is world renowned for its fine weave and tiny objects.
The following is an edited version
of an Elwani article (Volume 1, No. 2, May 1976) originally written
by Sandy Parnell, Lisa Mellon and Cindy Wheeler. They interviewed
Kodiaks Eunice Neseth at a time when Aleut basket weaving
was seen as an art form that was, perhaps, dying. From the many
efforts of Eunice, her teacher Anfesia Shapsnikoff and many others
who took the time to learn and then teach to others, the beautiful
art of Aleut basket weaving is alive and well. Recently, the Alutiiq
Museum sponsored a traveling grass basket exhibit featuring the
work of Arlene Skinner. Arlene traveled with the exhibit and taught
Aleut basket weaving to children and adults. Today, basket weaving
is not a dying art, but rather another form of art that has regenerated
interest in the indigenous culture of the Kodiak archipelago. Many
baskets are featured at the Baranov Museum, as well as at the Alutiiq
Museum in Kodiak. In the words of Eunice Neseth:
"I guess Ive been basket weaving
about 20 years. This is an Attu basket weaving which is also called
twinning. You have to have the right kind of grass, which is beach
rye. The weavers prefer Attu grass, which grows right on the island
of Attu or Atka. They say its a somewhat softer grass than
the grass that grows anywhere else. Its the same kind of
grass here but you just have to be careful when you pick it. If
its too close to the ocean its kind of coarse. When
the grass is picked at the wrong time of the year it has to be
beaten. When its just ready to flower, that is when its
ready to head, to make the top.
"We use a paring knife to cut the
straws. We take the straws single, those that have to be protected,
we are very careful with them so as not to bruise them. You take
them singly to the ground as close as you can. Then you move the
pile with care from one cutting to the next. When you have your
necessary amount, you wrap it in burlap. An amount for one basket
is about the size of your waist, its more than you can hold
in your hands. It takes a lot of work to make one basket, you simply
cant forget it, you must look after it or else it will spoil.
Its not too much of a chore to get the grass and take care
of it. You can go ahead and use it in the winter, no need for curing
it, because its already cured naturally. Although in the
winter its a lot coarser and it gets bruised by the weather.
When its bruised it breaks off easily.
"We gather it then and cure it in
a dark place for ten days. Taking it out of its wrappings of burlap
or any loose weave material every day to aerate it and then rewrap
it. After ten days is up, its ready to be separated. The
straws are to be separated from each other. The outer straws are
to be discarded and only the inner two straws are to be used. They
are taken out of the shaft and made into separate piles. The inner
most piece of straw is what is used as the outer work. What you
see in the baskets is the finest part . . .
"There are very few people who carry
on with basket weaving. They teach it in the schools along the
Aleutian Chain. Its something were trying to save.
Its sadly disappearing and were trying to keep it from
being lost altogether. It takes a lot of concentration and effort,
its not one of those things you pick up now and again. It
needs practice and improvement.
"We are very anxious to get young
children started. They can get used to it easily when they are
young and keep on with it. We should try to get some of the women
who took a basket-weaving class and liked it enough, to continue
it. Then soon enough maybe they can teach it."
by Maricia Ahmasuk
The elderly, people of the past,
bring anew something in me.
Often tears of mixed feelings come forth
with the sight or even thought of these wise ones.
They possess something mysterious and rare
with their strength one cannot find elsewhere.
Elders are steady, facing their daily struggles steady
like the rivers so swift!
The slightest movement of their hand spark
the imagination of what was, what is, what if . . .
Men and women of old are humble as can be,
yet their noble qualities speak through their sparkling
eyes with their chins held high.
Careless worries and childish doubts dissipate
almost instantaneously around the elderly, as their actions
portray volumes of what actually counts us all as the beloved
beings that we are.
Belonging to the past that created
them, the elderly have a way of looking back without closing
their eyes as they are somehow taken away from the present,
When these delicate creatures are brought
back Home we who are left behind are not really left alone,
for these wondrous beings leave silently, yet not without
an echo that rings true, filling the abyss of the soul
with great signs and wonders.
Elders across the globe share a great commonality.
They take us to impossible places as if looking
into the future, directing our paths somewhere to the past,
where we each have a place.
Often we hear Elders say that the youth are
the future . . . interesting, coming from
ancient voices who open the doors to tomorrow by looking
What may we ask of tomorrow . . . today
Alaska RSI Contacts
University of Alaska Fairbanks
PO Box 756730
Fairbanks, AK 99775-6730
(907) 474-1902 phone
(907) 474-5208 fax
University of Alaska Fairbanks
PO Box 756730
Fairbanks, AK 99775-6730
(907) 474-5403 phone
(907) 474-5208 fax
Frank W. Hill
Alaska Federation of Natives
1577 C Street, Suite 300
Anchorage, AK 99501
(907) 263-9876 phone
(907) 263-9869 fax
Southeast Regional Coordinator
8128 Pinewood Drive
Juneau, Alaska 99801
Iñupiaq Regional Coordinator
PO Box 1796
Nome, AK 99762
Athabascan Regional Coordinator
PO Box 410
Ester, Alaska 99725
Aleutians Regional Coordinator
Kodiak Island Borough School District
722 Mill Bay Road, North Star
Kodiak, Alaska 99615
Yupik Regional Coordinator
PO Box 219
Bethel, AK 99559
Sharing Our Pathways is a publication
of the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative, funded by the National
Science Foundation Division of Educational Systemic Reform
in agreement with the Alaska Federation of Natives and the
University of Alaska.
We welcome your comments and suggestions and encourage
you to submit them to:
The Alaska Native Knowledge Network
Old University Park School, Room 158
University of Alaska Fairbanks
P.O. Box 756730
Fairbanks, AK 99775-6730
(907) 474-1902 phone
(907) 474-1957 fax
Newsletter Editor: Dixie
Layout & Design: Paula
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