A newsletter of the Alaska Rural Systemic
Alaska Federation of Natives / University
of Alaska / National Science Foundation
Volume 2, Issue 2, March/April 1997
In This Issue:
Teaching and Learning Across
Cultures: Strategies For Success
by Ray Barnhardt
The following is the second of three excerpts from
an article addressed to teachers who are seeking guidance on how
to best enter a new cultural/community/school setting and make
a constructive contribution to the education of the children in
that setting. The final excerpt will be printed in the next issue
of Sharing Our Pathways.
What do you need to know?
Since learning a culture is a lifetime undertaking,
where do you, as a newcomer, start and what are the most important
aspects to be considered? One of the first things to recognize
is that the more you learn about another culture, the more you
will find out about yourself. We all carry around our own subconscious
culturally conditioned filters for making sense out of the world
around us and it isn't until we encounter people with a substantially
different set of filters that we have to confront the assumptions,
predispositions and beliefs that we take for granted and which
make us who we are. To illustrate how those differences can come
into play, we've included a chart (see below) that summarizes some
of the characteristics that tend to distinguish the view of the
world as exhibited in many indigenous societies from that embodied
in Western scientific tradition.
(Adapted from Wisdom of the Elders, by
Knudtson and Suzuki, 1992)
Indigenous World View
Western World View
Spirituality is imbedded in
all elements of the cosmos
Spirituality is centered in a single Supreme
Humans have responsibility
for maintaining harmonious relationship with the natural
Humans exercise dominion over nature to
use it for personal and economic gain
Need for reciprocity between
human and natural worlds-resources are viewed as gifts
Natural resources are available for unilateral
Nature is honored routinely
through daily spiritual practice
Spiritual practices are intermittent and
set apart from daily life
Wisdom and ethics are derived
from direct experience with the natural world
Human reason transcends the natural world
and can produce insights independently
Universe is made up of dynamic,
ever-changing natural forces
Universe is made up of an array of static
Universe is viewed as a holistic,
integrative system with a unifying life force
Universe is compartmentalized in dualistic
forms and reduced to progressively smaller conceptual parts
Time is circular with natural
cycles that sustain all life
Time is a linear chronology of "human progress"
Nature will always possess
Nature is completely decipherable to the
rational human mind
Human thought, feelings and
words are inextricably bound to all other aspects of the
Human thought, feeling and words are formed
apart from the surrounding world
Human role is to participate
in the orderly designs of nature
Human role is to dissect, analyze and manipulate
nature for own ends
Respect for elders is based
on their compassion and reconciliation of outer- and inner-directed
Respect for others is based on material
achievement and chronological old age
Sense of empathy and kinship
with other forms of life
Sense of separateness from and superiority
over other forms of life
View proper human relationship
with nature as a continuous two-way, transactional dialogue
View relationship of humans to nature as
a one-way, hierarchical imperative
Differences in cultural perspective, such as those
outlined in the chart on page two, have enormous implications for
all aspects of how we approach the tasks of everyday life, not
the least of which is the education of succeeding generations.
In most indigenous communities today, it is apparent that aspects
of both the indigenous and Western perspectives are present in
varying degrees, though neither may be present in a fully cohesive
fashion. It is not necessary (nor is it possible) for an outsider
to fully comprehend the subtleties and inner workings of another
culture (even if it is still fully functional) to be able to perform
a useful role in that cultural community. What is necessary, is
a recognition that such differences do exist, an understanding
of how these potentially conflicting cultural forces can impact
peoples lives and a willingness to set aside one's own cultural
predispositions long enough to convey respect for the validity
The particulars of an unfamiliar cultural system
can be effectively attended to without a thorough knowledge of
that culture, as long as you know how to make appropriate use of
local expertise and community resources. As you come to understand
how another cultural system works, you will also be learning more
about how culture influences behavior generally. The particulars
of the new
situation will lead to tentative generalizations
in your own understanding which will help you decipher the next
set of particulars. This should be a continuing cycle through which
you learn as much about yourself as you do about others. Along
the way you can expect to face some tough questions, like "Who
am I?" and "Why am I here?"-questions that we rarely encounter
in our own cultural worlds.
Two useful steps a new teacher can take to begin
to see beyond the surface features of a new cultural community
are getting to know some of the elders or other culture-bearers
and becoming familiar with aspects of the local language. By visiting
elders in the community, you will be showing respect for the bearers
of the local culture, while simultaneously learning about the values,
beliefs and rules of cultural behavior that will provide a baseline
for your teaching. Showing enough interest in the local language
or dialect to pick up even a few phrases and understand some of
its structural features will go a long way toward building your
credibility in the community and in helping you recognize the basis
for local variations on English language use in the classroom.
At no point should you assume, however, that you know everything
you need to know to fully integrate the local culture into your
teaching. When learning about another culture, the more you learn,
the more you find that you don't know. Always assume the role of
learner, so that each succeeding year you can look back on the
preceding year and wonder how you could have been so naive. When
you think you know it all, it's time to quit teaching.
Village Science: Another Set
by Alan Dick
There are physical laws that govern the operation
of the universe. These laws interact with each other, sometimes
in harmony, other times in competition, always seeking equilibrium.
To work with them produces efficiency. To work against them produces
frustration. I might think I can elude the effects of friction.
However, if I run my vehicle with no oil or dirty oil, friction
will have its way and I will end up in a garage with a huge bill
from the mechanic.
As a Western scientist who has lived among the indigenous
people of Alaska for over 30 years, there is one big difference
I see between Western science and the science as applied by indigenous
people. Indigenous people acknowledge the fact that there are spiritual
as well as physical laws that govern the operation of the universe.
Most Western scientists readily admit that there
are forces influencing their own lives, yet many are reluctant
to acknowledge the spiritual because it complicates the simple
scientific model from which they derive security. The spiritual
variable in every equation makes concrete conclusions difficult
or impossible to attain.
Allow me to give a few simple examples. There is
a spiritual law involving unity. When a group of people work together,
the whole exceeds the sum of the parts. Minorities, sports teams
and corporations all know that when people work together, there
is a power that emanates from that unity that makes it very difficult
to overcome. This is a spiritual law that operates whether we acknowledge
it or not. When we bicker and fight, the whole is less than the
sum of the parts. This also is true.
Another spiritual law says that you have to give
if you are going to receive. If you become like the Dead Sea, always
taking in, but never giving out, you will spiritually become like
that sea-dead. The indigenous people from my area have the custom
of young men giving away the first animal of each kind they catch,
whether it is the first rabbit, seal, moose or whatever. The young
people learn to give and as they give, more animals come to them.
However, if they are stingy, they will have difficulty catching
animals in the future. Most people in the villages know this. It
is a spiritual law-a principle.
These and other spiritual laws enter into the equations
of our lives. While the indigenous people of Alaska have benefited
greatly from Western science and technology. Westerners have been
slow to grasp the simple spiritual laws that Native people have
known and practiced for centuries. I have personally found that
physical laws have measurable outcomes that are often immediate
in result. Spiritual laws are more subtle in their outworking.
We sow discord today. We might not reap the result for a month,
year or a generation, but the result is as sure as action = reaction.
The result is as sure as a satellite getting out of balance and
falling out of orbit.
This is a subject for a book-not a brief article-but
I had to initiate the thought at some time. If my outboard motor
doesn't work, I immediately follow a troubleshooting sequence.
If our lives or communities aren't working, we need to initiate
a similar process, acknowledging the spiritual laws and principles;
set straight those things that we have violated; and strengthen
those things that we have already done well.
Yupiaq Mathematics: Pattern
and Form in Space and Place
by Angayuqaq Oscar Kawagley
The Alaska Native people have always had a way of
seeing and understanding patterns in the land (nuna) around them.
They identified patterns in plants, rivers, weather, landforms,
animals and the heavens. Upon the careful observation of patterns,
they were able to make predictions for the future. This critical
analysis involved the past histories, the present conditions and
thus presented sensemakers for the future. This is the practice
of ecopsychology at its finest. Everything that one needs to know
about life and to seek freedom and happiness are found in Nature.
As stated by Barry Lopez, the landscape becomes the mindscape and
the mindscape becomes the landscape (1986).
For Yup'ik people, according to elders Joshua Phillip
and Fred George, the various parts of the body were their measuring
instruments. The outstretched arms became the measure for the length
of a fishing net. The closed fist defined the opening of the blackfish
trap. Other units of measure, such as one arm's length, the distance
from the elbow to the tip of the index finger, the span between
the thumb and index finger extended, stepping off to mark the diameter
of the qasgiq and various combinations of these became the units
of measure for tasks such as making clothing, tools and shelter.
Consequently, the clothing people wore and the tools needed for
hunting and trapping were made precisely to fit the dimensions
of the user.
The women used precise patterns for making parkas
and mukluks. The parka required the maker to look at the body of
the person for whom it was to be made and to visualize proportions
in body form (including bone structure and musculature) and size
in order, for instance, to determine the number of ground squirrel
skins needed. In sewing together the skins, the sewer is reminded
of the family history of the patterns, tassels, decorative designs,
and the use of various furs, taking advantage of their beneficial
The Alaska Native people also had a numbering system
(Lipka, 1994). For the Yupiat people, their numbering system used
a base of twenty. Ten fingers and ten toes are needed to make a
complete person. The digits are attached to appendages which are
in turn attached to the body. The counting system was necessary
for determining the number of furs needed to make an article of
clothing. For example, it takes 45 squirrel skins or six otter
skins for a man's parka. For netmaking, special wooden measuring
tools were constructed, again using body parts to determine the
width for different species of fish. However, there was no need
to count the precise number of dry fish to last the whole winter.
This was done by estimating how much storage area needed to be
filled with fish to feed the family and dogs, provide for ceremonies
and share with others. Always, they had to have food supplies beyond
the immediate needs of the family. Sharing and reciprocity were
key to their preparations. Thus, for the Yupiat people it was not
necessary to quantify in precise numerical terms, but rather in
proportional terms relative to size of family, time until next
food supply would be available, weather conditions and nutritional
uses of various foods.
The Alaska Native people had many geometric designs
in the things they made such as utensils, fishtraps, weirs, clothing
designs and ceremonial paraphernalia. Again, it was not necessary
to quantify in terms such as surface area, degree, angle, volume
and other numerical dimensions. Such information alone would be
considered insufficient knowledge for you were also required to
know the history of the design, its replication of a natural or
spiritual form, the meaning of the color and the story behind the
The Alaska Native people also had no precise measurements
for distance such as feet, meters and miles. Rather, distance was
calculated qualitatively-measured more in terms of time and terrain
than distance. The Yupiaq person would consider the mode of transportation,
weather conditions, topography over which he would have to traverse,
history of various sites that one would encounter along the way
where food is available and, if traveling a great distance, where
logical and safe rest areas were located. In considering the above,
one can see that units of measure for distance alone would have
rendered their knowledge incomplete and unreliable as a basis for
moving from one place to another. The all-important knowledge of
place would be lacking in the details that are necessary for the
landscape to merge with the mindscape.
Space and time were thought of differently too. Space
was a multi-dimensional place that the human, spirit and nature
occupied at the same time. The self or consciousness was considered
to be time and timelessness at the same time. One accomplished
what needed to be done at the right time. There was a place and
time for everything. Timing in drumming and singing was important,
however there was no need for a metronome because it was implicit
in the act itself. To pay attention to such a device would detract
from the sacredness of song, beat, motion and story. The circadian
rhythm of the universe was the sacred timepiece of the Native people.
Western mathematics and sciences, because of their
emphasis on objectivity and detachment, introduce us to an abstract
and lifeless world that has a tendency to set us apart from the
rest of our relationships in the universe. However, with fractal
geometry and the new sciences of chaos and complexity, the Western
thought-world seems to be shifting from the quantitative and impersonal
study of tangible "things" and is becoming more attuned to the
qualitative dimensions as more and more of its members recognize
the importance of inter-relationships (Capra, 1996). Western scientists
constructed the holographic image which lends itself to the Native
concept of everything being connected. Just as the whole contains
each part of the image, so too does each part contain the makeup
of the whole. The relationship of each part to everything else
must be understood to get the whole picture (Wilber, 1985). We
are finally getting there.
There are many bright Native people who would make
excellent elementary or high school teachers. Many of these students
have problems understanding mathematics, in part because teachers
don't themselves recognize it as another way of knowing with a
language and logic of its own. We present mathematical abstractions
as though the purpose was to practice the virtuosity of the human
mind and its creativity and we lose sight of its practical applications.
Native students often have trouble visualizing abstract mathematical
constructs and their application to real life. Perhaps, we can
overcome this problematic academic gatekeeper by introducing Native
students to recognizing and understanding the patterns and forms
in their own world through which they can visualize the problems
and then move from qualitative to quantitative explanations. From
the tangible we can go slowly into the intangible. The interest
that such an approach can spark is evident in the work of the Inupiaq
students from Kaktovik, who have created their own system for representing
Inupiaq numerals (Bartley, 1997).
We are in a modern world which was described ably
by Lewis Carroll in Alice in Wonderland: "Now, here, you see, it
takes all the running you can do to keep in the same place. If
you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as
fast as that!" New information is bombarding us from all quarters
with entropy setting in and the decay of knowledge brings about
confusion. It behooves us then to slow down and see what knowledge
and information will help us to build the kind of world that we
would like. What aspects of mathematics and the sciences will help
free us from the obsession with self and materialism? We can learn
from the way our ancestors made sense of the world and used keen
observation of patterns and form in relation to space and place
to maintain balance between the human, natural and spiritual worlds.
You see, our problem is a crisis of consciousness. Ralph Waldo
Emerson once wrote, "Society is in conspiracy against the manhood
of every one of its members. Society is a joint-stock company in
which the members agree, for the better securing of his bread to
each shareholder, to surrender the liberty of the eater." We experience
resistance to making change in the world, but our efforts must
continue with spirit and determination.
Capra, F. (1996). The Web of Life:
A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems. New York: Doubleday.
Lipka, J. (1994). Culturally Negotiated Schooling:
Toward a Yup'ik Mathematics. Journal of American Indian Education,
Lopez, B. (1986). Arctic Dreams: Imagination
and Desire in a Northern Landscape. New York: Charles Scribner's
Wilber, K. (1985). The Holographic Paradigm and
Other Paradoxes: Exploring the Leading Edge of Science. Boston:
New Science Library.
Bartley, W.C. (1997). Making the Old Way Count.
Sharing Our Pathways, 2(1), 12. (Available from the Alaska
Native Knowledge Network)
by Amy Van Hatten
As I plan for the new initiatives on Village Science
Applications and Careers and Living in Place that
are being implemented in the Interior region this year, I can't
help but reflect on past performances. Much of the success in
1996 was the result of a joint effort comprised of dedicated
contributors from diverse fields touching on math and science.
A sense of place and direction will surface under the flourishing
guidance from elders, UAF staff, the seven participating school
districts, Fairbanks Native Association, Denakkanaaga, Inc.,
Cultural Heritage and Education Institute and Gaalee'ya Camp.
I would like to thank Paula and Lolly for their proficiency
in putting together the Sharing Our Pathways newsletter, and I
would like to invite any of the Interior members to submit an article
in which you share some of your students' work in math, science,
social studies or language arts. There are many exciting things
The Athabascan Regional Elders Council known as "The
Spirit Of Our Ancestors Cultural Review Board" has nine board members.
They are: Avis Sam, Northway; Trimble Gilbert, Arctic Village;
Catherine Attla, Huslia; John Andrews, McGrath; Hannah Solomon,
Bertha Moses, Allakaket; Rita Alexander, Minto/Fairbanks;
David Salmon, Chalkyitsik; Kenneth Thomas Sr., Tanacross and James
Dementi, Shageluk. Alternates are Fred Alexander-Minto/Fairbanks,
and Johnson Moses, Allakaket.
As Alaska RSI partners that represent the Interior,
our first task is to maintain proper respect, mutual trust, loyalty,
good people skills and an understanding of how the Native way of
life is universal to all indigenous people. These are reflected
in the project goals for the Interior region:
Still in the works is the Athabascan regional strategic
work plan. It is important for me to learn of all the Interior
rural events, activities, career fairs, science fairs, Native council/corporation
meetings with emphasis on education, teacher in-service days, cultural
camps, AISES club/chapter meetings, Native language workshops,
traditions week, curriculum workshops, medicinal plant workshops,
students hunting and gathering ventures, Native science field trips,
elders' council meetings and other gatherings that highlight cultural
change. Such information is important to the Alaska RSI in order
to implement a comprehensive and systemic approach to education
Project WILD Workshop
Along with interested persons from Ella B. Vernetti
School, Galena City School and sponsorship from the Alaska State
Fish & Game education department, we facilitated a Project
WILD workshop in Galena for a dozen local teachers last October.
Two local elder women were invited to share their life experiences
in two different cultures which they had to adapt to. For 16 hours
we did hands-on cultural activities, teaching and sharing while
safeguarding methods of peoples' lifestyles. Because of the success
and quality time together, we decided to have another workshop
at the Mokakit Conference entitled LISTEN.LEARN. LIVE.TEACH: Hands-on
Designs for Integration of Indigenous and Western Scientific Knowledge.
What happens when you take an international curriculum
like Project WILD, mix it up with the Alaska Wildlife Curriculum,
then flavor and season it with an understanding of traditional
Native language, stories and the many seen and unseen elements
of nature observed from your area? The result: an intriguing workshop
where everyone gains from the total group knowledge. We will take
the participants on a multimedia field trip along the nature trail,
share images, stories and then go WILD firsthand with an activity.
Handouts include adapted activities and poetry created from our
experiences in Galena and Koyukuk. That is our version of integrating
science and math with an Athabascan perspective.
Watch and listen for upcoming events in the Alaska
Rural Systemic Initiative and Rural Challenge Program. Thank you
for your valuable time.
Curriculum Development from
a Native Perspective
by Virginia Ned
The development of the curriculum unit, Traditional
Uses of the Birch Trees: Adaptation and Transportation of Interior
Athabascan People, is based on a short segment of the K'etetaalkaanee
story as told by Johnson Moses at the Academy of Elders Camp/Native
Teacher Institute held at Old Minto in July and August, 1996.
The goal of the unit was to form a foundation from
which Native students can build their learning experiences. The
framework of the unit is not stationary, but is always in motion.
The ideas are interchangeable. The five aspects of curriculum development
listed below states the purpose of the unit and helps to distinguish
it as indigenous curriculum development.
Cultural Learning Expectations gives an overview
of the cultural values or thought processes that are expected to
be learned by the Native child. For example, in Johnson Moses'
story of K'etetaalkaanee, four unstated Native values came to mind
that are important for a Native child to learn. The values are:
respect for an elder, determination to succeed even when encountered
with difficulties, innovative thinking and respect for the land
Standards of the unit is the correlation of the Western
and Athabascan world views. The standards seek to meet the requirements
of the district curriculum guidelines, state standards and federal
standards while reflecting on indigenous cultural content and Koyukon
The Teaching Modality is how, where and when lessons
should be taught. The cultural unit should be taught in a natural
setting with elders as instructors as much as possible.
Content Areas pertains to integration of the basic
subject areas into the birch tree unit. An example is in the building
of the birch bark canoe. Research and interaction with Native elders
is a prerequisite to the development of Native science, mathematics
and art. Subjects such as the basic mathematics, reading, creative
writing, art, social studies and science are integrated into the
knowledge of building a birch bark canoe. Research and interviewing
techniques, listening, comprehension and critical thinking are
a few of the skills that are taught simultaneously.
The Cultural Background gives specific information
on topics discussed in the lessons. For example, some of the lessons
were developed around the theme of the birch bark canoe. In the
cultural background specific information was included on traditional
modes of transportation.
The unit as a whole respectfully reflects the sincerity
of indigenous curriculum development as a mode of passing on the
knowledge of our ancestors in a school setting.
Thank you to the elders who shared their knowledge
of our ancestors with us at the Academy of Elders Camp and all
who made the camp possible.
by Andy Hope
I've spent much of the last two months working to
close out 1996 projects, specifically the Tlingit Math Book, the
Curriculum Guide and the Tlingit Country Map and Tribal List (This
map will also include Alaska Haida tribes, clans and clanhouses.)
Both of these projects should be published by the end of March
The math book was originally published by Tlingit
Readers in 1973. It was written by the late Katherine Mills of
Hoonah and her students at Hoonah High School. The revised book
is being produced by Jackie Kookesh, currently a graduate student
at University of Alaska Southeast in Juneau. Jackie is receiving
technical support from Nora and Richard Dauenhauer and Michael
Travis of Sealaska Heritage Foundation. The book will be made available
at no charge to teachers in our three 1997 consortium districts:
Chatham, Sitka and Hoonah. For others interested, please contact
me at 465-6362.
The other publishing project to be completed by the
end of March is the Tlingit Country Map and Tribal List. The map
will list the traditional tribal territories of the Tlingit. It
will be accompanied by a list of traditional Tlingit tribes, clans
and clan houses.
One of our main 1997 initiatives will be starting
work on a regional cultural atlas. This atlas will be funded by
the National Science Foundation and will have a math and science
orientation. To begin work on this inititative, I will be working
with a small design team. The team conducted its first meeting
in Sitka on February 21 in conjunction with the Third Annual Native
Higher Education Conference at Sheldon Jackson College.
I have organized two teleconferences to work on plans
for summer programs. A number of possibilities have been discussed
including a family history workshop, a curriculum development workshop,
an Axe Handle Academy and a Tlingit language workshop. There is
general agreement that the programs should take place in Sitka
and that the target participants should be teachers from the three
consortium districts and members of the Southeast Alaska Native
Educators Association (SEANEA). Final decisions have not been made
as of this date, pending further consultation with the SEANEA and
at least one more planning teleconference.
The Southeast Regional Elders Council just finished
a very good meeting on February 27-28, 1997 and made a number of
- To call for a summer SE Native language institute
to work on Tlingit, Tsimshian and Haida curriculum
- To call for a SE tribal charter school and a SE
tribal college and to request the SEANEA to investigate
- To call for a SE Native archives to be established
- To call for the next elders council meeting to
be held in Sitka the week of August 4, to be held in conjunction
with the language institute, a family history workshop and SEANEA
Members of the council include the following people:
Arnold Booth, Metlakatla (Chair); Charles Natkong, Hydaburg; Lydia
George, Angoon; Gil Truitt, Sitka; Isabella Brady, Sitka; Marie
Olson, Juneau and Joe Hotch, Klukwan.
Integrating the Tlingit Language
Across the Curriculum
Pauline Duncan of Sitka, Alaska is a first grade
teacher at Baranof Elementary School. Her philosophy includes a
strong belief that the curriculum should include Native and non-Native
students alike. Parents, families, elders and community members
should be an integral part of the program.
Seven years ago Pauline took an active interest in
learning the Tlingit language. As her fluency and her interest
increased, she started looking for ways to bring it into her classroom.
Pauline has created a curriculum that uses the Tlingit language
on a regular basis. She has been especially innovative in using
items available in the Sitka environment and in the daily lives
of the children to make learning the Tlingit language and culture
meaningful and exciting. She has developed books, lesson plans,
calendars, parent involvement activities and many other ideas that
she has shared unselfishly throughout the Sitka School District
(some Southeast school districts and Southeast Headstart) and beyond.
The following is a sample of only one of these creative
activities-an herbal gift basket. The dedicated and genuine caring
it must take to follow such a curriculum is awe-inspiring. What
a wonderful learning experience she has created for her children
and what a wonderful gift they have received to perpetrate the
culture and language.
The gift basket activity was a unit that took months
to complete and in order to gain the knowledge for it, Pauline
attended an herbal-plant class and adapted what she learned to
a first grade level curriculum. The elements that were covered
were plants, the five senses, math, health, cooperative learning,
language arts, technology and art. Following are the steps it took
in order to complete the basket and the benefits the children gained
from the experience.
Class expedition collecting leaves and pine cones
that were then categorized by size and color and dried by the students.
Class trip to muskeg to pick Hudson Bay tea leaves.
Taught how to identify leaves by color and smell. The historical
use of the tea to the Native community was shared and discussed.
When the leaves were dried, the class had an opportunity to taste
The class went to pick the rose hips from the Senior
Center in downtown Sitka. A class discussion was shared on the
high content of Vitamin C in the rose hips and its benefits. The
rose hips were picked and the kids helped to pick out the seeds.
Some seeds were placed under a magnifying glass so they could see
why it was so important to remove the seeds. Jam was made in the
classroom enabling them to smell and taste the jam.
Also in October
The class had an outing to pick yarrow, a medicinal
plant that is also in the basket. It is used for healing tea or
to clot blood. Sitka is rich with the yarrow plant. They were shown
how to identify it and how to dry it for tea.
The red clover in the basket was brought to class
for them to observe the drying and the making of medicinal ointment
from the dried leaves.
Pauline honors the culture and heritage through integrated
instructional planning. Sitka is their textbook for science and
social studies. Included in her curriculum are basic classroom
commands, counting, subsistence foods, nursery rhymes, a daily
lunch count, colors, songs, posters with matching tapes and a calendar
that translates well-known rhymes into the Tlingit language.
If you would like more information regarding her
program, feel free to contact her at 305 Baranof School, Sitka,
AISES Corner (American Indian
Science and Engineering Society)
by Claudette Bradley-Kawagley
Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative welcomes the Interior
of Alaska into the AISES family. January 31 to February 2 was the
first Interior AISES liaison teacher meeting. Teachers worked on
culturally relevant science activities for the AISES chapter/clubs
soon to be established in village schools. Teachers plan to hold
monthly audioconference meetings to include more teachers within
the seven school districts: Alaska Gateway, Galena, Iditarod, Nenana,
Tanana, Yukon Flats and Yukon/Koyukuk.
Village students will develop science fair projects,
develop plans this spring, collect data in the summer and construct
display boards in the fall in preparation for an Interior Alaska
Science Fair, November 1997. The teachers formed a summer camp
committee to plan a July camp to be held at the University of Alaska
Fairbanks and Howard Luke Camp. Students must submit plans for
their science fair projects with the application to the camp.
The date for the Interior Alaska Science Fair will
be November 20-22, 1997 in Fairbanks. Elders will participate in
the judging processes along with teachers and scientists. Rita
Alexander of Minto Elders Council attended the three day meeting
for the Interior Alaska AISES liaison teachers. At the end of the
meeting she expressed her gratitude that the Athabascan culture
is going to be taught in the schools via AISES chapter/clubs. She
encouraged the teachers to discuss AISES with the elders in their
The Arctic Region AISES professional chapter held
an audioconference meeting jointly with teachers in the Interior,
members of the Anchorage AISES Professional Chapter and interested
educators attending the Bilingual Multicultural Education Equity
Conference in Anchorage during the second week of February. This
meeting helped teachers start precollege chapters and provide startup
experiences of the Arctic Region AISES precollege chapters.
UAF AISES Chapter is sponsoring an AISES College
Chapters Conference for Region I that includes students from colleges
and universities in Montana, Washington, Idaho, Wyoming, Oregon,
Vancouver, BC and Alaska. The conference will be held March 6-8,
1997, concurrently with the Festival of Native Arts. Students in
dance groups from village schools are invited to attend sessions
during the day. Alaska Native Education students of the Fairbanks
North Star Borough School District will receive an invitation to
attend the conference. The UAF AISES students are planning a career
day and hope to have many precollege students in attendance.
Lots of good activity is being generated by the Village
Science Application Initiative via AISES family groups: Chapter/Clubs,
UAF College Chapter and Alaskan professional chapters. Three cheers
for Alaska RSI.
by Barbara Liu
I am back full swing after a long bout with a flu
bug. In December, elder Henry Alakayak called me from Aleknagik
and said a similar flu was in his area, so I now call it the regional
flu bug. Thanks are in order to Henry for lifting my spirits up
at a time when I needed it.
Nutaan piyugtequa calingartua quserpak pelluan.
Alussistuam qaingani Qilum Alaqnaqimek qayagauraanga qanerluni
awani-llu naulluquniluki ayuqluta maani-llu. Quyallruunga seg'aqercellua
The Yup'ik/Cup'ik regional initiatives in 1997 are
Culturally-Aligned Curriculum Adaptation and Language/Cultural
Immersion Camps. We will be working with
- Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD),
- Kuskokwim Campus (KUC),
- Yupiit School District,
- Kashunamiut School District,
- Lower Yukon School District (LYSD),
- Saint Mary's School District,
- Bristol Bay Campus (BBC),
- Southwest Region School District (SWSD) and
- Lake and Peninsula Borough School District.
The KYUK/ARCS MOA involves developing a documentary
showing some of these schools.
Maa-i caarkat matumi allrakumi elitnaurutet yivriumaciqut.
Elitnaurvigni calilriit tungqurluki caliciqua maani Kusquqvagmek
LKSD-iit, Yupiit SD-aat, KUC-iiq. Cali-llu Qissunamiut, Kuigpagmek
LYSD-iit, St. Mary's SD-aaq, Iilgayam nuniinek BBC-iiq, SWSD-aat-llu,
Nanvarpagmek-llu Lake and Peninsula SD-aat. KYUK-iiq-llu tangercetaaliciquq
elitnaurvignek elluarrluteng taqutellernek elinaurutkanek.
Thank you Esther Ilutsik, Cecelia Martz, Charles
Kashatok and Greg Anelon, Jr. for seeing through the first year
of what seemed like a monumental project to me.Through your help,
we can focus on specific activities this year. New representatives
from other districts will be on board and I look forward to working
with all of you under this project.
Quyana-llu Arnaq, Tacuk, Ac'urun, Greg-aq-llu
ikayurlua caarkat caucillemteki augumi allrakumi pellullermi.
Maa-i allanek elitnaurvignek ilaluta piqcaarciqukut, piinanemteni
elitaqucaurciiqukut caarkaput-llu patagmek taqsugngariluki.
Recently, with the help of others, I met with invited
MOA school representatives and individuals on February 24 and 25,
1997 in Bethel, Alaska. The theme of our meeting was Integrating
Yup'ik/Cup'ik Knowledge in Education. School representatives are
an integral part of this project in sharing ideas, brainstorming
and planning ways we can integrate Yup'ik/Cup'ik language, culture
and knowledge in contemporary science, math and other classes.
Quyurtellerkiullemteni quyana ikayurlua ernerkiurluta
mat'umi Kepnercim nangyartullrani Mamterillermi. Quyureskumta
elitnaurutkanek yivririciqukut Yugtaat aturluki. Wani elitnaurvigni
calilriit caliameng ilii maniluku, umyuangcarluteng caarkanek
taquciiqut elilnauruteksunarqellrianek qaneryaramteggun, yuucimteggun,
qanruyutet elitnaurutkani alaitengesqelluki.
The project initiative begins by focusing on activities
that inspire the elders, teachers and students in integrating Yup'ik/Cup'ik
language, culture and knowledge with Yup'ik/Cup'ik science and
math curriculum development. Secondly, brainstorming to solicit
ideas to integrate Yup'ik/Cup'ik language, culture and knowledge
with science and math curriculum from an indigenous perspective.
Finally, a planning session to establish tangible goals for the
project and set calendar dates for the year.
Caliaput ayagniutengqertuq yivrirluki elitnaurutkat
atuugarkat tegganret, elitnauristet elitnaurat-llu piliarit paivvluki
qaneryaramteggun, piciyaramteggun, qanruyuutetgun atuulrianek
watua. Nutaan-llu taqu- manrilnguut alairrluki atuuyugngalriit
nutem wangkuta yugni piciryaraput aturluku una aipaimta elitnaurilauciat
ilaluku piyuutevcenek. Nutaan, taqucugngaukut caarkamtenek, taqlerkiurluki-llu
caliamta piyuuti maliggluku.
The role of the regional elder council is to advise
us on regional issues such as from the indigenous perspective.
To facilitate this perspective, we would need to gain consensus
on some of the regional issues under this project.
Tegganret calilriit qanrutnarqaakut caliamta qilertellerkaanek
ellaita piyuutiit maliggluku, cali-llu wangkuta umyuallgutekluta
tegganemta qanellrit maligtaquluki.
*Yup'ik translation in Akula dialect.
Mumigtelqa Yugtun Akulmiucetun pimauq
Learning Put Into Cultural
by William Beans
I have observed interaction in a number of situations
where I have watched students learning in an out-of-school situation.
The adults who taught them were always willing, when given an opportunity,
to teach skills they used in their everyday lives. They were the "elders",
or professionals by right, in their daily life activities. I will
give two examples-one of a male and the other of a female-teaching
skills they have mastered in their perspective roles.
The first one I would like to describe is the making
of a taluyaq, or trap, used for catching black fish, mink, otter
or muskrats in the traditional way. The instructor already had
straight grain driftwood split into strips for the students. He
explained that this wood can be found during the summer when at
camp, etc. He explained that not just any wood can be used for
this purpose. Students were able to look at and touch the wood
as he explained. He described the grain of the wood and how it
could bend easily without breaking. The straight grain wood was
three and a half to four feet long. The driftwood had to be carved
down to approximately one-half inch wide by three-eighths of an
inch thick. The instructor then had the students get a feel for
the canasuun, or carving tool, by giving them one. He demonstrated
how to use it. Then he gave the students scrap wood so they could
practice using the tool before they began carving the material
for the traps. He explained that it was important for all the strips
to be carved down and he told them how many they needed to complete
the trap. Once done with the strips, he went on to make the neck
of the trap, estimating how big he wanted the trap to be. He made
his estimation based on materials at hand. The students carefully
observed as he worked on the neck of the trap. He showed them each
step of the way how it was to be done. The instructor also had
roots of alder trees that he had gathered for tie downs. The roots
had been gathered during the summer months from along the river
The elder showed in detail the process of putting
the trap together, giving the students examples and having them
work through the process firsthand step-by-step. With every success
he gave them praise, letting them know that they have the ability
and skill to make anything that they set out to. The students experienced
success with each step they completed and were excited about what
they were doing. The trap is considered completed when the apprentices,
or students, set the trap and provide a meal for the elder and
his family. The apprentice type teaching by the elder works with
The next teaching situation I would like to describe
is the making of a parka. An elder, in the process of making her
own parka, had two young ladies working with her while cutting,
measuring and sewing materials. She did not use measuring tape,
but rather used herself as a mannequin. She talked her students
through the steps, describing how and which cuts and measurements
went where. The elder had the students do the actual hands-on as
she went about making measurements and cuts. She laid out the materials
and explained why certain pieces went where. That is, there are
certain patterns on the skins that the maker wants to match up.
It is like working a puzzle, by piecing the skins together to get
the visual just right. The cutting of the materials has to be just
right, so that when the sewing begins the skins will not be lopsided
or uneven. The elder got the visual of the pieces together then
began the process of cutting. Under her close supervision the students
were tasked with helping her cut the materials. As they completed
a task, the elder explained the steps to the next one. Parka making
involves a number of tasks. The ruff and trimming are added to
make the parka complete. Each step involves sewing. The elder continually
demonstrated how to do this while explaining the importance of
the stitching. With each phase of work, the elder praised each
lady's work. The students gained self-confidence as their efforts
were acknowledged. The end result was a nice, completed parka for
the elder. For the ladies, there was a feeling of accomplishment
and a good feeling inside, knowing that the elder would have a
parka to keep warm in the cold. The ladies also sensed that they
would receive praise from other women about what great skills they
possessed for being able to do a good job.
In both of the tasks I have described, the teacher/elders
showed much patience in working with the students. The frequent
encouragement, praise and help they gave along the way kept the
students from becoming frustrated, giving up and quitting. Learning
the skills became a meaningful, unforgettable and enjoyable experience.
In comparing and contrasting these examples to how
learning occurs in school, it is to be noted that in the classroom
setting this type of teaching and learning very rarely occurs.
Why? In the classroom setting, teachers are textbook driven. Lessons
are designed in such a way that teachers stick to teaching in a
chronological order. Teachers are locked into a method of teaching
that goes from addition to calculus, from Columbus to World War
II. This method of teaching is very contradictory to the learning
and teaching that occurs in our daily lives.
The educational system we impose on students is contrary
to the methods used by our elders. This puts into perspective why
it seems our educational system is not working. In the classroom,
our students are not interacting with someone, but rather are taking
symbols and numbers and trying to make something of them. In many
situations, students get frustrated and angry and as a result,
do just enough to get by. In an interactive teaching situation,
such as with the elders, students learn what is being taught and
they grow through experiencing. The elders gain as they share with
and learn from the students with whom they are interacting.
In summing up, I would like to say, from the observations
made, that we need to step back and look again at the population
with whom we are working with. We need to reassess how we can become
better educators, using the rich resources available to us, and
capitalizing on the elders and what they have to offer.
Integrating Indigenous Knowledge into Education
by Elmer Jackson
The Northwest Arctic Borough School District (NWABSD)
Inupiaq Language and Culture Curriculum Review committee is in
their second year of reviewing and creating new curriculum. My
report will be on the subsistence calendar for all seasons. This
indigenous way of life will be incorporated into the curriculum.
Another important part of many Inupiat efforts is to teach our
Inupiat language to the young. Although the future looks grim,
it is hoped that one day our Kobuk river Inupiat dialect will be
not forgotten by the young, leaving only our elders knowing how
to speak Inupiaq. With the help of technology, elders and linguists,
we might be able to keep our dialect alive.
Last year, the bilingual curriculum committee began
the task of restructuring the bilingual curriculum program. We
changed our mission statement and began revising the curriculum
by creating the Inupiat subsistence calendar beginning with:
A. Upingaksraq-Early Spring (March and April)
- Food gathering. Caribou, moose, reindeer, bear,
rabbits, porcupine and muskrat provide food for the Inupiat.
A variety of seals and whales are a gift from the sea. Edible
plants and berries are harvested during the summer and fall.
Fish are abundant in the Arctic.
- It is important to learn about the environment
and to respect it. Safety on ice and learning survival skills
- Arts & Crafts. Waterproof maklaks, parkas,
mittens and other warm clothing are made by women. Men are creating
tools, sleds, harpoons and other household utensils. The men
are usually trapping and snaring rabbits for fur and food.
- Games that require physical activity are aqsraaq-Inupiaq
football, Norwegian ball game, manna manna, maq, anakitaq and
Native Youth Olympic games.
- The Northwest Arctic Native Association (NANA)
have listed the following Inupiaq values: knowledge of language,
sharing, respect for elders, love for children, hard work, knowledge
of family tree, avoiding conflict, hunter success, humor, spirituality,
family roles, learning domestic skills, responsibility to tribe,
love for children and respect for nature.
B. Upingaksaq-Spring (May)
- Migrating ducks and geese, whales and beluga provide
a welcome change in the diet. The rivers and streams are free
from ice. Other food harvested are various types of fish such
as sheefish, whitefish, trout and pike. Many people follow the
river ice, hunting for waterfowl and muskrats.
- An Inupiaq value that is alive is sharing. When
a young hunter catches his first game it is given to an elder.
A person who lives the subsistence way of life must learn the
skill of skinning and dissecting game animals such as bear, moose
and caribou. A hunter is a person who when subsistence hunting,
treats them with respect. It is important to learn the anatomy
of the animals that are hunted for food.
- The cultural skills practiced are net making,
sewing, beading, berry basket making and other arts and crafts.
C. Auraq-upingaaq-Summer (June-August)
- Berries begin to ripen in July. Blueberries, salmonberries
and raspberries are picked. Fresh greens such as rhubarb, sourdock,
willow greens, fireweed shoots and beach greens are harvested
and some are mixed with berries. Eggs from ducks, geese and other
waterfowl are also in season. Ducks and geese molt this time
of the season. They are at their heaviest, having fattened themselves.
Many Inupiat are involved in different methods of fishing. Caribou
frequent the tundra and river. People of the coast are hunting
seals, beluga, walrus and whale. People inland have nets out
to catch whitefish, trout, pike and salmon. Another method of
fishing is by seining.
- Summer is a very busy time for many Inupiat. Many
women on the Kobuk river are out gathering birch bark and tree
roots for the art of making baskets. Other summer projects are
ulu-making, beading, parka-making, carving oars and countless
arts and crafts items.
- There are many plants and herbs that are harvested
for medicinal purposes. The stinkweed is best harvested when
the plant has a strong odor. This is when the plant curing strength
is at its strongest. This plant is used to help cure chest colds
and help cure the body of other ailments. Crushed willow leaves
are used to relieve bee stings. The food contents of the porcupine
are dried for curing loose stools or an upset stomach. There
are many other plants that need to be researched for their medicinal
- There are many indigenous games that need to be
brought back and taught to the young. The Native Youth Olympics
and the World Eskimo/Indian Olympics are held every year. Many
schools in the Bering Straits, the NWABSD and the North Slope
Borough School District involve their students in the Native
D. Ukiaksraq-Early Fall
- Bear, moose and caribou are hunted and put away
for winter. Many different kinds of fish are cut, cleaned and
dried. Masru or wild potatoes are gathered and put in seal oil.
Tinniks or bearberries are picked and mixed with seal oil or
- By observation, Inupiat people have learned to
predict weather through weather and geographical indicators.
Elders teach traditional beliefs about weather. It is important
to learn place names, camping grounds and geographical places.
It is wise to let someone know where you are traveling to. Elders
need to teach survival techniques. Learn where hunting and gathering
places are. Know whose camps belong to whom and to show respect
for the property.
- Mother nature in the fall is generous in terms
of food gathering. The Western Arctic caribou herd migrates through
the Noatak and Kobuk river valleys. Other food gathering activities
include berrypicking, hunting and fishing. Hunting of seals,
walrus and whale occur in the coastal parts of the Inupiaq region.
Many Inupiat people are skin-sewing, carving, ice-fishing and
making and mending nets.
- Inupiat of the northern regions celebrate and
give thanks on Thanksgiving day. Many have harvested from the
bounty of Mother Earth. Many gather at the local church for the
Thanksgiving feast. Throughout the day and night there are activities
for the people in the community. Spirituality is alive within
the Inupiat culture; we give thanks to our Creator for giving
us everything to survive in our environment.
- Many Inupiat are busy with their daily lives;
some are hunting and trapping; women are sewing warm clothing
for the cold winter months. Other projects are net making, carving,
creating implements, tanning furs and celebrating birthdays.
Many people attend important community and school functions.
Christmas celebrations are held with Eskimo dancing and giving
gifts at the church. A feast at the community building or at
the church is held celebrating our Creator's birthday.
In January, the Inupiat Curriculum Committee worked
on developing K-6 curriculum. Our work on the curriculum is continuing
with the hope of keeping our language and culture alive.
by Moses Dirks
Happy New Year! Snuugii Guudam! Slum tagadagan
Inixsinaa! Slum Tagadagan Qagataa.
The Aleut Region is completing its first initiative-Indigenous
Science Knowledge Base-which is a Jukebox program on a compact
disc containing information on indigenous science and is near completion.
As soon as certain procedures are taken care of, the Jukebox program
will be made available.
The Aleut Region is now in the process of implementing
its second year with the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative. This
year's initiative for the Aleut Region is entitled Elders and Cultural
Camps. This initiative would require, with the help of the memorandum
of agreement (MOA) partners, setting up an academy of elders, Native
teacher organizations and cultural camps in the region. Along with
the elders we will teach the Native ways of doing things. We are
hoping to set up two elder and cultural camps in the region-one
in the Aleutian and one in the Kodiak/Chugach Region.
Aleutian Pribilof Area
The potential MOAs with the Aleutian Pribilof Island
Association and the Unalaska Public Schools have been contacted
to help out with the initiative for this year.
Kodiak Area Native Association (KANA) has also been
contacted as a potential MOA, they will also be involved with helping
this year's initiative. This is the second year that KANA has been
involved with the project. KANA was our original MOA partner for
the development of the "Jukebox" program.
Chugach region has been contacted about the second
year initiative, Elders and Cultural Camps. Chugach Alaska Corporation
was contacted and informational material was received from them
about cultural camps they have running in their region during the
summers. The Aleut/Alutiiq Region is in the process of informing
and involving all potential partners who would be interested in
participating in this year's initiative.
The Aleut region will be following up on the signing
of the potential MOAs this spring. The sooner we can sign everyone
involved we can proceed with the initiative for this year. We are
excited about working with our elders.
If you have concerns or questions please call me
at (907) 274-3611, Monday through Friday between 8:00 a.m.-4:30
Young Navigators Explore South
by Joshua Lewis
Young navigators aggressively explored the fifth
largest continent in late November. The sixth grade of North Star
school and the fourth and fifth grades of Peterson Elementary in
Kodiak traveled across 15,000 miles and 22 hours of time zones
to speak one on one with a team of scientists currently undertaking
research at McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica.
Through special arrangements with the National Science
Foundation, excitement built a strong momentum. As a North Star
School teacher, I received a call from Antarctica at 1:00 a.m.,
November 25th informing me of the 48-hour timeline. Strategy was
designed and implemented while students quickly took up the challenge
to discover all aspects of life and types of research conducted
at the Southern Pole. Diving headfirst into the Internet was seconded
only to massive research through traditional means of articles,
documentaries, books and encyclopedias. E-mail and phone calls
flew across satellites as preparations continued. The Peterson
fourth and fifth grade crews joined in the expedition through the
efforts of teacher Ron Gibbs.
One father reported that his son, Robert Rounsaville,
had talked of nothing else since the Inter-Polar Conference had
been announced. As Robert's second grade teacher, I remembered
Robert had expressed dreams of one day discovering a new life form
when he grew up. While scientists unwound descriptive stories of
giant 170 lb cod so new no name has yet to be given, Robert was
hard pressed not to climb into the speakerphone.
I explained that the expedition via conference call
was a long process come to fruition through the efforts of Earl
Ramsey, a scientist currently conducting research at McMurdo Station.
Ramsey, a lifelong Anchorage resident, has been working in both
polar regions for the last six years. On his brief returns to Alaska,
Ramsey has always made time to lecture to my students providing
vivid images of research through stories and slide shows. In October,
Ramsey visited the aggressive navigators in Kodiak. The teleconference
was one step in furthering the ongoing relationship.
Student questions to the team of scientists covered
every aspect from animal life and vegetation to loneliness and
isolation. The youngsters were surprised to learn how fragile the
fresh water system is. Scientists explained they are consumed with
the process of making fresh water at all times. Students were enchanted
with the image of standing nose to nose with a huge penguin and
also expressed concern about the ozone layer issues pertaining
to global warming. In a followup e-mail, the McMurdo team stated
they were very impressed by the caliber of inquiry by such young
researchers. The one-hour teleconference stretched to nearly two,
and as Ramsey stated, could easily have been three.
As the questions and answers continued to fly, the
sense of community and ownership was built across the phone line.
At McMurdo, the scientists being interviewed were joined one-by-one
by other research team members. The lead NSF scientist, Dave Bresnahan,
sat quietly listening as the room at McMurdo filled to capacity.
The North Star classroom, stuffed with 60 intrepid explorers frantically
attempting to capture the moment with extensive notes, diagrams,
sketches, videography, photography and maps were joined by reporters,
parents and teachers silently slipping into the room to catch a
few moments. Tension was high until students felt assured everyone
would have their moment to ask a personal question.
The most recent and last communication from McMurdo
station, Ross Island, Antarctica was placed by the head of communications.
Students were informed Ramsey would no longer be in direct contact
with them. He had begun his extensive traverse across Antarctica
to continue research on ice core samples. The samples unlock such
secrets as oxygen levels pertaining to air quality thousands of
years ago. As Earl begins his traverse, so continues the story
as the young navigators follow in his footsteps.
Program For Teachers
June 9-27, 1997
Fairbanks Campus/Old Minto Cultural Camp
The Center for Cross-Cultural Studies, University
of Alaska Fairbanks will be offering the annual Cross-Cultural
Orientation Program (X-COP) for teachers beginning on June 9, 1997
and running through June 27, 1997. It includes a week (June 14-21)
out at the Old Minto Cultural Camp on the Tanana River with Athabascan
elders from the village of Minto. The program is designed for teachers
and others who wish to gain some background familiarity with the
cultural environment and educational history that makes teaching
in Alaska, particularly in rural communities, unique, challenging
and rewarding. In addition to readings, films, guest speakers and
seminars during the first and third weeks of the program, participants
will spend a week in a traditional summer fish camp under the tutelage
of Athabascan Elders who will share their insights and perspectives
on the role of education in contemporary rural Native communities.
Those who complete the program will be prepared to enter a new
cultural and community environment and build on the educational
foundation that is already in place in the hearts and minds of
the people who live there.
Course, Credit and Instructor
The X-COP program is offered for three semester hours
of academic credit and is designated as ED 610, Education and Cultural
Processes. The credit is applicable toward the UAF M.Ed. degree,
as well as the Alaska certification renewal requirement of three
semester hours in "multicultural education." The course may also
be followed with two on-site graduate courses offered during the
fall and spring semesters to help integrate what is learned in
the summer into teaching practice. The instructor for the course
is Ray Barnhardt, Ph.D., who has over twenty-five years of rural
and Native education experience in Alaska.
Participants enrolling in the three-week X-COP summer
course will be assessed the standard tuition fee for a three-credit
graduate course ($453), $50 for books and materials, and a $100
fee for food, lodging and transportation during the week at Old
Minto. Dormitory rooms or married student housing are available
on campus for participants in the program. Information on housing
rates and applications may be obtained from the UAF Summer Sessions
office (474-7021) or the Housing Office (474-7247).
Anyone wishing to enroll in the X-COP program should
contact one of the UAF College of Rural Alaska campuses (in Kotzebue,
Nome, Bethel, Dillingham, Barrow and Interior), the School of Education
Center for Cross-Cultural Studies (474-6431), or the Summer Sessions
office in Fairbanks (474-7021) for enrollment forms. For further
information, call 474-6431 or send e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Alaska RSI Contacts
The Alaska RSI Regional Coordinators are located
in five regions within the state of Alaska. They are listed below
to help you identify the correct contact.
Amy Van Hatten
Athabascan Regional Coordinator
University of Alaska Fairbanks
PO Box 756730
Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-6730
(907) 474-0275 phone
Inupiaq Regional Coordinator
PO Box 134
Kiana, Alaska 99749
Southeast Regional Coordinator
University of Alaska Southeast
School of Business/PR
11120 Glacier Highway
Juneau, Alaska 99801
Yup'ik Regional Coordinator
Bethel, Alaska 99559
Aleutians Regional Coordinator
Alaska Federation of Natives
1577 C Street, Suite 201
Anchorage, Alaska 99501
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